Mouse Genome Informatics
cn1
    Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn/Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CD-1 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
cellular
• in the gut and mouse embryonic fibroblasts following tamoxifen treatment


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn2
    Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn/Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0
Trp53tm1Brn/Trp53tm1Brn

involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CD-1 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
mortality/aging
• after 2 weeks of tamoxifen treatment

tumorigenesis
• widespread high-grade dysplasia and numerous intramucosal carcinomas invading the lamina propria in most of the small-bowel crypts and villi within 2 weeks of tamoxifen treatment

digestive/alimentary system
• increased proliferation after tamoxifen treatment throughout the crypt-villus axis

cellular
• in the gut of tamoxifen treated mice but no more so than in Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn/Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr mice
• increased proliferation after tamoxifen treatment throughout the crypt-villus axis


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn3
    Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn/Csnk1a1+
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0
Trp53tm1Brn/Trp53tm1Brn

involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CD-1 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
tumorigenesis
• within 6 months, 7 of 9 tamoxifen-treated mice develop invasive carcinomas that permeates the bowel muscular wall into the subserosal fat with some involvement of the serosal surface (stage T4)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn4
    Cdkn1atm1Tyj/Cdkn1atm1Tyj
Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn/Csnk1a1tm1.1Ybn
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * CD-1 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
tumorigenesis
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit severe dysplasia and intramucosal carcinomas throughout the small bowel

digestive/alimentary system
• massive proliferation in the villi compartment in tamoxifen-treated mice

cellular
• massive proliferation in the villi compartment in tamoxifen-treated mice


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn5
    Tcf7l1tm1Efu/Tcf7l1tm1Efu
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal adult intestinal homeostasis (J:185753)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn6
    Tcf7tm1Cle/Tcf7tm1Cle
Tcf7l1tm1Efu/Tcf7l1tm1Efu
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129 * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal adult intestinal homeostasis (J:185753)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn7
    Nr5a2tm1Sjns/Nr5a2tm1Sjns
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/?

involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6 * DBA/2 * SJL
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• following treatment with tamoxifen, 2,4,6-trinitrobezene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis results in severe lesions with advanced necrosis
• following treatment with tamoxifen, 2,4,6-trinitrobezene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is more severe than in wild-type mice

immune system
• following treatment with tamoxifen, 2,4,6-trinitrobezene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is more severe than in wild-type mice


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn8
    Ptentm2Mak/Ptentm2Mak
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * CBA
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
N
• following induction with tamoxifen in utero or in adult mice, crypt-villi architecture and physiology are normal (J:143082)

integument
• when induced with tamoxifen in utero, mice develop a shaggy or ruffled coat


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn9
    Rbpjtm1Hon/Rbpjtm1Hon
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• 6 days after the last injection of tamoxifen (given for 5 consecutive days), in the small intestine and colon the rapidly dividing transit amplifying compartment is replaced by post-mitotic goblet cells, with almost complete conversion by 12 days

endocrine/exocrine glands
• 6 days after the last injection of tamoxifen (given for 5 consecutive days), in the small intestine and colon the rapidly dividing transit amplifying compartment is replaced by post-mitotic goblet cells, with almost complete conversion by 12 days


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn10
    Pou5f1tm1Scho/Pou5f1tm1Scho
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
N
• mutants display normal intestinal tissue architecture, crypt regenerative capacity after irradiation, and normal weight gain (J:130248)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn11
    Lgr4tm1.1Knis/Lgr4tm1.1Knis
Lgr5tm2.1Cle/Lgr5tm2.1Cle
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• generated intestinal organoids degrade after 2 days of tamoxifen treatment
• however, organoid survival is rescued by retroviral expression of LGR5


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn12
    Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle/Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• between day 1 and 5 of tamoxifen treatment
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit an absence of proliferative cells in the adult small intestine after 7 days of treatment
• cultured intestinal organoids treated with tamoxifen exhibit a block in proliferation and subsequent death of the organoid by day 6
• 3 days after tamoxifen-treatment, mice exhibit an elimination in Olfm4+ intestinal stem cells with the exception of in escaper crypts
• 3 days after tamoxifen-treatment, some goblet cells express Paneth cell markers
• 1 day after tamoxifen-treatment, Paneth cells are eliminated from the crypt of Lieberkuhn and aberrantly located on the villi

cellular
• between day 1 and 5 of tamoxifen treatment
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit an absence of proliferative cells in the adult small intestine after 7 days of treatment
• cultured intestinal organoids treated with tamoxifen exhibit a block in proliferation and subsequent death of the organoid by day 6

endocrine/exocrine glands
• 1 day after tamoxifen-treatment, Paneth cells are eliminated from the crypt of Lieberkuhn and aberrantly located on the villi
• 3 days after tamoxifen-treatment, some goblet cells express Paneth cell markers


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn13
    Tcf7tm1Cle/Tcf7tm1Cle
Tcf7l1tm1Efu/Tcf7l1tm1Efu
Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle/Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• tamoxifen-treatment results in the same defects as in Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle/Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr mice
• tamoxifen-treatment results in the same defects as in Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle/Tcf7l2tm2.1Cle Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr mice


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn14
    Slc39a4tm2Gka/Slc39a4tm2Gka
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype

Growth retardation of tamoxifen treated Slc39a4tm2Gka/Slc39a4tm2Gka Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0 mice

mortality/aging
• mice treated with tamoxifen as neonates die within a week of weaning unless excess zinc is provided in the drinking water
• mice treated with tamoxifen (3 injections) 5 days after weaning die unless provided with excess zinc in the drinking water
• removal of excess zinc in the drinking water results in precipitous weight loss and death in mice treated with tamoxifen as neonates or after weaning
• excess zinc must be provided by day 6 after tamoxifen treatment to prevent lethality
• mice treated with tamoxifen at 7 weeks of age die around 1 week after the treatment

growth/size
• rapid weight loss after weaning in mice treated with tamoxifen as neonates unless excess zinc is provided in the drinking water
• rapid weight loss is seen within a few days of tamoxifen treatment in mice treated with tamoxifen (3 injections) 5 days after weaning despite normal food consumption and much of this weight loss involves loss of muscle and bone
• mice given a single injection of tamoxifen after weaning slowly lose weight, about half recover and resume normal growth
• rapid weight loss is also seen when mice are treated with tamoxifen at 7 weeks of age
• mice treated with tamoxifen as neonates provided excess zinc in the drinking water at weaning still fail to gain much body weight following weaning

homeostasis/metabolism
• increase in manganese in the liver by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment with levels about twice normal by 8 days after treatment
• about a 50% decrease in copper levels in the small intestine by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment
• decrease in copper levels in the pancreas by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment
• by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment
• largest loss of copper occurs in the small intestine
• by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment
• by 8 days after tamoxifen treatment
• levels are about twice normal by 8 days after tamoxifen treatment
• decrease in zinc levels in the small intestine, pancreas and liver at 4 days after tamoxifen treatment
• decrease in zinc levels correlates with the beginning of weight loss
• levels in the liver normalize by 8 days after tamoxifen treatment

digestive/alimentary system
• decrease in proliferation at 2, 4 and 6 days after tamoxifen treatment
• progressive and profound disorganization of the villus after tamoxifen treatment
• by 6 days after tamoxifen treatment epithelial cells have lost much of their columnar morphology becoming cuboidal with centric nuclei
• by 6 days after tamoxifen treatment the lamina propria appears disorganized, occupies more space in the villi, and often contains red blood cells and cells with pyknotic nuclei
• progressive and profound disorganization of the crypt architecture after tamoxifen treatment
• crypts become elongated 2 days after tamoxifen treatment
• after tamoxifen treatment Paneth cells contain large cytoplasmic vacuoles and the store of labile zinc is rapidly depleted
• about a 50% decrease in copper levels in the small intestine by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment

liver/biliary system
• increase in manganese in the liver by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment with levels about twice normal by 8 days after treatment
• by 4 days after tamoxifen treatment
• by 8 days after tamoxifen treatment
• levels are about twice normal by 8 days after tamoxifen treatment

muscle
• rapid muscle weight loss is seen within a few days of tamoxifen treatment in mice treated with tamoxifen 5 days after weaning despite normal food consumption

skeleton
• loss of bone mass is seen within a few days of tamoxifen treatment in mice treated with tamoxifen 5 days after weaning despite normal food consumption

cellular
• decrease in proliferation at 2, 4 and 6 days after tamoxifen treatment

endocrine/exocrine glands
• progressive and profound disorganization of the crypt architecture after tamoxifen treatment
• crypts become elongated 2 days after tamoxifen treatment
• after tamoxifen treatment Paneth cells contain large cytoplasmic vacuoles and the store of labile zinc is rapidly depleted

Mouse Models of Human Disease
OMIM IDRef(s)
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica, Zinc-Deficiency Type; AEZ 201100 J:187178


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn15
    Aestm1.1Mmt/Aestm1.1Mmt
Apctm1Mmt/Apc+
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6 * DBA * SJL
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
tumorigenesis
• often seen inside vessels that are distended, reminiscent of tumor embolism
• treated with 4-hydroxytamoxifen to activate Cre recombinase at 3 weeks of age
• tumor invasion and intravasation into the smooth muscle layer of the small intestine and colon at 17 weeks of age
• in polyps larger than 2 mm in diameter, about half of them is found invading into the submucosa or beyond
• adenocarcinomas by histopathological definition
• the extent of cellular atypia and epithelial architecture are rather similar to those in the Apctm1Mmt adenomas, without a very malignant appearance
• adenocarcinomas by histopathological definition
• the extent of cellular atypia and epithelial architecture are rather similar to those in the Apctm1Mmt adenomas, without a very malignant appearance


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn16
    Slc40a1tm2Nca/Slc40a1tm2Nca
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129S4/SvJae * 129S6/SvEvTac * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
hematopoietic system
• by 6 - 7 weeks after the start of tamoxifen treatment, average hematocrit is 11.2 +/- 1.6% compared to 45.3 +/- 5.9% in controls without the cre transgene
• parenteral treatment with iron dextran restores hematocrits in tamoxifen treated mice to levels similar to control mice that do not carry the cre transgene
• by 6 - 7 weeks after the start of tamoxifen treatment, average hemoglobin concentration is 2.8 +/- 0.6 g/dl compared to 13.8 +/- 1.8 g/dl in controls without the cre transgene
• visibly anemic by 8 days after the first tamoxifen injection
• severe iron deficient anemia develops by 6 - 7 weeks after the start of tamoxifen treatment
• a 4.7-fold decrease in splenic nonheme iron is seen after tamoxifen treatment

homeostasis/metabolism
• significant iron accumulation in duodenal enterocytes after tamoxifen treatment
• a 4.7-fold decrease in splenic nonheme iron is seen after tamoxifen treatment
• a 5.5-fold decrease in hepatic nonheme iron is seen after tamoxifen treatment

digestive/alimentary system
• significant iron accumulation in duodenal enterocytes after tamoxifen treatment

immune system
• a 4.7-fold decrease in splenic nonheme iron is seen after tamoxifen treatment

liver/biliary system
• a 5.5-fold decrease in hepatic nonheme iron is seen after tamoxifen treatment


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn17
    Cdc25atm1Hpw/Cdc25atm1.1Hpw
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• mild reduction in length in tamoxifen-treated mice
• mild reduction in length in tamoxifen-treated mice

growth/size
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal body weight (J:169457)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn18
    Cdc25atm1Hpw/Cdc25atm1.1Hpw
Cdc25ctm1Hpw/Cdc25ctm1Hpw
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal intestine morphology (J:169457)

growth/size
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal body weight (J:169457)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn19
    Cdc25atm1Hpw/Cdc25atm1.1Hpw
Cdc25btm1Pjd/Cdc25btm1Pjd
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
mortality/aging
• 2 of 5 tamoxifen-treated mice die by day 8

digestive/alimentary system
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit premature differentiation of small intestine crypt cells compared with control mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit decreased S-phase cells in crypts compared with control mice
• reduced length in tamoxifen-treated mice
• reduced length in tamoxifen-treated mice
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• tamoxifen treated mice exhibit a reduction in epithelium cells in the small intestine crypts compared with control mice
• however, the number of Paneth cells is normal

growth/size
• in tamoxifen-treated mice

endocrine/exocrine glands
• tamoxifen treated mice exhibit a reduction in epithelium cells in the small intestine crypts compared with control mice
• however, the number of Paneth cells is normal

cellular
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit premature differentiation of small intestine crypt cells compared with control mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit decreased S-phase cells in crypts compared with control mice


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn20
    Cdc25atm1Hpw/Cdc25atm1.1Hpw
Cdc25btm1Pjd/Cdc25btm1Pjd
Cdc25ctm1Hpw/Cdc25ctm1Hpw
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
mortality/aging
• 5 of 11 tamoxifen-treated mice die by day 8

digestive/alimentary system
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit premature differentiation of small intestine crypt cells compared with control mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit decreased S-phase cells in crypts compared with control mice
• reduced length in tamoxifen-treated mice
• reduced length in tamoxifen-treated mice
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• tamoxifen treated mice exhibit a reduction in epithelium cells in the small intestine crypts compared with control mice
• however, the number of Paneth cells is normal

growth/size
• in tamoxifen-treated mice

endocrine/exocrine glands
• tamoxifen treated mice exhibit a reduction in epithelium cells in the small intestine crypts compared with control mice
• however, the number of Paneth cells is normal

cellular
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit premature differentiation of small intestine crypt cells compared with control mice
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit decreased S-phase cells in crypts compared with control mice


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn21
    Cdc25btm1Hpw/Cdc25btm1Pjd
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal intestine morphology (J:169457)

growth/size
N
• tamoxifen-treated mice exhibit normal body weight (J:169457)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn22
    Hprttm1(CAG-mCherry/Villin)Syr/?
Vil1tm1Syr/Vil1tm1Syr
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: C57BL/6
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
homeostasis/metabolism
N
• after tamoxifen induction (J:196199)
• injury repair after carbachol treatment is complete after 7 days as in control mice (J:196199)
• columnar epithelium begins to flatten 30 minutes after injury with sodium deoxycholate (J:196199)
• apico-basal polarity lost, microvillus disassembly (J:196199)


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn23
    Hprttm2(CAG-mCherry/Villin*)Syr/?
Vil1tm1Syr/Vil1tm1Syr
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: C57BL/6
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
homeostasis/metabolism
• failure to heal properly at 3 and 7 days after carbachol treatment in tamoxifen induced mice
• very few cells in contact with sodium deoxycholate induced injury show polarity loss


Mouse Genome Informatics
cn24
    Rnf43tm1Cle/Rnf43tm1Cle
Znrf3tm1Cle/Znrf3tm1Cle
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• following tamoxifen treatment a marked expansion of the proliferative compartment is seen
• following tamoxifen treatment a marked expansion of the proliferative compartment is seen with enlarged crypts and Ki67+ cells ectopically located on the flanks of villi
• increase in the number of Olfm4+ stem cells after tamoxifen treatment
• increased number after tamoxifen treatment

tumorigenesis
• form within 1 month of clonal deletion induced by low dose tamoxifen treatment
• contain Olfm4+ stem cells and Paneth cells

cellular
• following tamoxifen treatment a marked expansion of the proliferative compartment is seen

endocrine/exocrine glands
• following tamoxifen treatment a marked expansion of the proliferative compartment is seen with enlarged crypts and Ki67+ cells ectopically located on the flanks of villi
• increase in the number of Olfm4+ stem cells after tamoxifen treatment
• increased number after tamoxifen treatment


Mouse Genome Informatics
cx25
    Xbp1tm3Glm/Xbp1tm3Glm
Tg(Vil-cre/ERT2)23Syr/0

involves: 129S6/SvEvTac * C57BL/6 * DBA/2
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
digestive/alimentary system
• in tamoxifen-treated mice
• reduced numbers in tamoxifen-treated mice
• increased apoptosis at the base of crypts (Paneth cells) and in villous epithelium (goblet cells) in tamoxifen-treated mice
• focal enteritis in 4 of 9 tamoxifen-treated mice ranges in severity from lamina propria polymorphpnuclear infiltration to crypt abscesses and ulceration without granulomas
• enteritis in 7 of 18 tamoxifen-treated mice

immune system
• focal enteritis in 4 of 9 tamoxifen-treated mice ranges in severity from lamina propria polymorphpnuclear infiltration to crypt abscesses and ulceration without granulomas
• enteritis in 7 of 18 tamoxifen-treated mice

cellular
• at the base of crypts (Paneth cells) and in villous epithelium (goblet cells) in tamoxifen-treated mice

endocrine/exocrine glands
• reduced numbers in tamoxifen-treated mice