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Mouse Genome Informatics Coronavirus Information Center

Mouse Models for Coronavirus Research

COVID-19alert mouse
About this resource: MGI is a knowledgebase of mouse models of human disease. To aid the research community in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic, we have collected expertly curated information on publications, mouse models and both human and mouse genes relevant to coronavirus research. This special collection will be updated regularly. – Updated 5/4/2021
Table of Contents

The COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel member of the coronavirus family of viruses. As of early May 2021, more than 153.7 million cases of COVID-19 have been documented in 192 countries/regions worldwide1,2.

The virus that causes COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was likely transmitted to humans from an animal reservoir. The exact nature of this transmission is still under investigation3.

There are many efforts underway to develop treatments and vaccines for COVID-194.

Figure 1. This transmission electron microscope image shows virus particles of SARS-CoV-2 emerging from the surface of cells from a COVID-19 patient cultured in the lab. The spikes on the periphery of the virus particles give coronaviruses their name (Latin derivation; corona=crown). Photo Credit: NIAID-RML

Coronavirus Research in the Laboratory Mouse

The laboratory mouse is an important preclinical model for studying coronavirus biology and treatment approaches. The tables below summarize information about strains and genes relevant to the study of coronavirus in mouse. This information was obtained from the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) knowledgebase hosted at The Jackson Laboratory and from the International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR).

MGI’s biocuration scientists are monitoring the peer-reviewed scientific literature for new reports and will update the MGI database weekly. You can help this effort by notifying MGI’s Help Desk about references in the peer-reviewed literature about the use of the mouse in coronavirus research that are missing from our database.

See all curated scientific publications that report on mouse models for coronavirus research in MGI

Coronavirus InvestigatedMouse Strain NameMouse Strain AvailabilityStudy Type  Reference(s)  Summary
SARS-CoV-2ICR-Tg(Ace2-ACE2)1Cqin/J on an ICR backgroundNo repository listing COVID-19

Coronavirus infection
Bao et al. 2020A transgenic mouse strain that expresses the human gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) (the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), driven by the mouse Ace2 promoter. Transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit weight loss and virus replication in lung; these mice develop interstitial pneumonia similar to human COVID-19 patients.
SARS-CoV-2BALB/cAnNHsdEnvigoCoronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Dinnon III et al. 2020The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 was altered to create a recombinant virus (SARS-CoV-2 MA) that is capable of using the mouse Ace2 receptor for infection. The mouse adapted virus replicated in 10 week and 1 year old BALB/c mice.

Similar to observations in humans, pulmonary disease was more severe in older mice compared to young mice.

10 week old BALB/c mice vaccinated with an Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle (VRP) system against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein effectively neutralized the virus.

Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 MA infected mice with pegylated interferon (IFN)lambda 1a diminished the replication of the virus in mice.
SARS-CoV-2BALB/c Source not identifiedCoronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Gao et al. 2020.An inactivated virus vaccine (PiCoVacc) generated neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice, Wistar rats, and macaques that were specific to SARS-CoV-2. The neutralizing antibodies worked against 10 SARS-CoV-2 strains. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection was not observed but cannot be ruled out.
SARS-CoV-2BALB/cNo repository listing COVID-19

Coronavirus infection
Hassan et al. 2020BALB/c mice intranasally inoculated with a replication-defective adenovirus encoding the hACE2 receptor are productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, exhibiting high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss. Passive transfer of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduces viral burden in the lung and mitigates inflammation and weight loss.
SARS-CoV-2C57BL/6-Ace2em1(ACE2)YowaNo repository listing COVID-19

Coronavirus infection
Sun et al. 2020A knock-in mouse line that expresses the human gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), under the control of the endogenous mouse Ace2 promoter. Both young and aged mutant mice sustain high viral loads in lung, trachea, and brain upon intranasal infection. Aged SARS-CoV-2 infected mice show interstitial pneumonia and elevated cytokines. Intragastric inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 also caused productive infection and lead to pulmonary pathological changes.
SARS-CoV MA15B6;129S4-C3tm1Crr/JJAX:003641 Gralinski et al. 2018Intranasal infection of C57BL/6J mice with SARS-CoV MA15 (the mouse-adapted SARS-CoV) results in high-titer virus replication within the lung, induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and immune cell infiltration within the lung. Mice deficient in C3 (C3-/-) are protected from SARS-CoV MA15-induced weight loss and show reduced pathology, improved respiratory function and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the lung and periphery than C57BL/6J controls.
SARS-CoVTg(FOXJ1-ACE2)1Rba on a mixed C3H and C57BL/6 genetic backgroundRelated Strain: MMRRC:066719COVID-19

Coronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Jiang et al. 2020

Menachery et al. 2016
A transgenic mouse strain that expresses the human version of the SARS-CoV receptor (ACE2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) under the control of the ciliated epithelial cell-specific promoter elements of the human FOXJ1 promoter. This mouse is particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV).


Rag1tm1Mom from JAX. The exact stock is not specified.
Coronavirus infection Menachery et al. 2020The investigators evaluated the use of 2'O MTase mutants as a live-attenuated vaccine platform to rapidly respond to current and future CoV strains.
SARS-CoVTg(CAG-ACE2)AC70Ctkt and
Tg(CAG-ACE2)AC63Ctkt on mixed genetic backgrounds
No repository listingCoronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Yoshikawa et al. 2009 and Tseng et al. 2007A transgenic mouse strain that expresses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, under the regulation of a global promoter. These mice are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV infection and show weight loss and other clinical manifestations before reaching 100% mortality within 8 days after intranasal infection.
SARS-CoVTg(K18-ACE2)2Prlmn on a mixed a C57BL/6J * SJL/J backgroundJAX:034860*

*This model is being expanded as a possible model for the study of SARS-CoV-2

Coronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
McCray et al. 2007A transgenic mouse strain that expresses the human version of the SARS-CoV receptor (ACE2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) developed to study the pathobiology of SARS-CoV and to aid in development of antiviral therapeutics. These mice develop severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
SARS-CoVTg(Ace2-ACE2)1Cqin on an ICR backgroundNo repository listingCoronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Yang et al. 2007A transgenic mouse line that expresses the human gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) (the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV), driven by the mouse Ace2 promoter. Mice infected with SARS-CoV show severe pathologic changes that resemble human SARS infection.
SARS-CoVBALB/cBALB/c mice distributed from several respositories. The exact strain used in the study is not clear.Coronavirus infection Roberts et al. 2005Replication of SARS-CoV was observed in lung and intestinal tissue in 12- 14 month old BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally. These animals displayed clinical signs of illness and pneumonia similar to humans.
SARS-CoVC57BL/6JJAX:000664Coronavirus infection Glass et al. 2004Infected mice had a relative failure to thrive, gaining weight significantly more slowly than uninfected mice, but recover. C57BL/6J mice support transient nonfatal systemic infection with SARS-CoV in the lung and brain.
SARS-CoVBALB/cBALB/c mice distributed from several respositories. The exact strain used in the study is not clear.Coronavirus infection Wentworth et al. 2004Replication of SARS-CoV was observed in lung and intestinal tissue in 4 week old BALB/c mice inoculated intranasally and orally. Infected mice did not display clinical signs of illness.
MERS-CoVDpp4tm1.1(DPP4)Pbmj on a C57BL/6NTac backgroundNo repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Li et al. 2020Evaluated a parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based vaccine expressing the MERS-CoV envelope spike protein (PIV5/MERS-S) in a human DPP4 knockin C57BL/6 congenic mouse model (hDPP4KI). Following a single-dose intranasal immunization, PIV5-MERS-S induced neutralizing antibody and robust T cell responses in hDPP4KI mice.
on a C57BL/6J background
No repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Iwata-Yoshikawa et al. 2019 and Iwata-Yoshikawa et al. 2019DPP4 encodes the viral receptor of Middle East respiratory-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6NCr background express human DPP4 under control of the endogenous promoter. Intranasal inoculation of young and adult Tg mice with MERS-CoV led to infection of the lower respiratory tract and pathological evidence of acute multifocal interstitial pneumonia within 7 days, with symptoms more severe in older mice.
on a C57BL/6 background
No repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Fan et al. 2018The human DPP4 cDNA, the viral receptor of Middle East respiratory-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was inserted into the Gt(ROSA)26Sor locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Transgenic mice are susceptible to infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strain hCoV-EMC.
on a mixed inbred strain background including C57BL/6 and C57BL/6NTac
No repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Li et al. 2017Mice with a humanized Dpp4 gene were inoculated with MERS-CoV. Exons 10-12 (from codon I264 in exon 10 to codon V340 in exon 12) of the mouse were replaced with the corresponding human exons of 10-12 which comprise the critical Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) receptor. After 30 passages, a mouse adapted virus (MERSMA) emerged.
C57BL/6J-Dpp4em1RbaNo repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Cockrell et al. 2016Genome editing was used to humanize the mouse Dpp4 (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor) gene so match the human gene and make mice susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and replication. A mouse adapted MERS-CoV strain (MERS-15) induced severe acute respiratory like disease in infected animals.
on a mixed C57BL/6J and SJL/J genetic background
No repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Li et al. 2016Transgenic mice express human DPP4 (hDPP4) under the control of the cytokeratin 18 promoter that renders susceptiblity to infection with MERS-CoV.
on a mixed inbred strain including C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J
No repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Agrawal et al. 2015The human DPP4 cDNA, the viral receptor of Middle East respiratory-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), generated from the mRNA of human phytohemagglutinin-activated T cells, is expressed under the control of a ubiquitous promoter. Mice are susceptible to infection with the EMC-2012 strain of the Middle East respiratory-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and develop an acute wasting syndrome, with progressive weight loss starting at 2 days post infection.
on a mixed inbred strain background including 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6NTac
Coronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Pascal et al. 2015This mouse model is comprised of an 82 kb human DPP4 genomic DNA from exons 2–26, including 3′UTR which replaced the 79-kb mouse Dpp4 counterpart sequence. The model also expresses components of the human immune system (antibody-variable heavy chains and kappa light chains) and is capable of developing human antibodies against MERS-CoV.
MERS-CoVC57BL/6-Tg(CAG-DPP4)4YuzhNo repository listingCoronavirus infection

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Zhao et al. 2015A transgenic mouse model globally expressing codon-optimized human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV.
Human GeneMouse Gene  CommentsReferences
angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2
Ace2ACE2 encodes the receptor that SARS viruses use to infect a cell (Li et al., 2003, Hoffmann et al., 2020). The mouse version of the ACE2 receptor doesn’t bind SARS-CoV as efficiently as the human form. To make the mouse more useful as a model for productive SARS coronavirus infection, several groups have generated transgenic animals that express the human ACE2 gene. These transgenic mice are good models for SARS-CoV infection (the virus responsible for the 2002-2003 SARS pandemic), and may also prove effective as models for COVID-19 disease, due to the genetic similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic).Li et al. 2003
Hoffmann et al. 2020
aryl-hydrocarbon receptor
Ahr Grunewald et al. (2020) demonstrated that Ahr is activated in cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and contributes to the upregulation of downstream effector TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Tiparp) during infection. Knockdown of Tiparp reduced viral replication and increased interferon expression, suggesting it functions in a proviral manner during MHV infection. Grunewald et al. 2020
apolipoprotein D
Apod Study by Do Carmo et al. (2008) demonstrated that Apod transcripts and protein are upregulated during acute encephalitis induced in mice infected with a human coronavirus ( HCoV-OC43). Apod regulates inflammation and has a protective role against the coronavirus, presumably through the phospholipase A2 signaling pathway. Do Carmo et al. 2008
apolipoprotein E
Apoe APOE e4 genotype predicts severe COVID-19 in the UK BioBank, independent of dementia, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.Kuo et al. 2020
Bsg BSG (CD147) interacts with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate entry into cells. A humanized anti-CD147 antibody (Meplazumab) competitively inhibits the binding of the spike protein and BSG and prevents viral entry into cells.Wang et al. 2020
CD209 molecule
CD209a antigen
Human CD209 (aka CLEC4M, CD209L, L-SIGN) binds purified soluble SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoproteins expressed in various cell cultures. The data show that CD209 can serve to facilitate the entry of SARS-CoV into cells.Jeffers et al. 2004
Cai et al. 2020. Preprints.
dipeptidylpeptidase 4
Dpp4DPP4 encodes the receptor that MERS-CoV viruses use to infect a cell (Raj et al., 2013). To make the mouse a useful model, genome editing was used to introduce two amino acid changes, an alanine to leucine substitution at amino acid 288 (A288L) in exon 10 and a threonine to arginine substitution at amino acid 330 (T330R) in exon 11 (Cockrell et al, 2016). These two changes match the human sequence, making mice susceptible to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection and replication.Rai et al. 2013
Cockrell et al. 2016
interferon induced with helicase C domain 1
Ifih1Zalinger et al. (2015) demonstrated that mice deficient in Ifih1 (aka, Mda5) experienced more severe disease following infection of the liver with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Ifih1 normally participates in the activation of type 1 interferon in response to the presence of viral RNA. Fisher et al. (2020) propose that the loss of IFIH1 in pangolins may have contributed to the role these mammals play as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses.Zalinger et al. 2015
Zust et al. 2011
Fischer et al. 2020.
interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1
Ifnar1Study by Ireland et al. (2008) demonstrates the critical role of type I interferon in controlling murine hepatitis virus (MHV) dissemination within the central nervous system. Ireland et al. 2008
interleukin 10
Il10 Trandem et al. (2011) showed that IL10 produced by CD8+ T cells diminished severity of encephalitis in mice with coronavirus-induced acute encephalitis. Han et al. (2020) reported that high levels of IL6 and IL10 are associated with critical COVID-19 disease in patients.Trandem et al. 2011
Han et al. 2020.
mucin 4
Muc4 Work by Plante et al. in incipient Collaborative Cross mouse lines suggests that Muc4 expression plays a protective role in female mice not conserved in male mice following SARS-CoV infection. Treatments that modulate or enhance Muc4 activity may provide an avenue for treatment and improved outcomes. It is not known if the findings in mice hold true for humans.Plante et al. 2020. bioRxiv.
myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88
Myd88Infection with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV virus (rMA15) is lethal in BALB/c mice but causes a non-lethal infection in C57BL/6 mice. Mice deficient in Myd88 are more susceptible to rMA15. Data suggest that Myd88-mediated innate immune signaling and inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung are required for protection from lethal rMA15 infection. Sheahan et al. 2015
neuropilin 1
Nrp1 SARS-CoV2 binds NRP1 in human cell culture enhancing viral infection. Potential role in neurological targets based on transport studies of viral sized particles in mice (in Cantuti-Castelvetri paper).Cantuti-Castelvetri et al. 2020.
Daly et al. 2020. bioRxiv.
signal transducer and activator of transcription 1
Stat1STAT1 plays a key role in development of acute lung injury associated with SARS pathology (Frieman et al., 2010). Stat1 knockout mice infected with SARS-CoV developed interstitial pneumonia but did not develop diffuse alveolar damage (Hogan et al. 2004).Frieman et al. 2010
Hogan et al. 2004
toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2
Ticam2Ticam2 is an innate immune system modulatory gene. Using two strains of Collaborative Cross mice, Gralinsky et al. demonstrated that mice with a loss of Ticam2 were highly susceptible to SARS-CoV infection and demonstrated increased weight loss and pulmonary hemorrhage compared to control mice. It is not known if variation in human TICAM2 contributes to susceptibility to SARS-CoV disease response. Gralinsky et al. 2017
TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
Tiparp Grunewald et al. (2020) demonstrated that Ahr is activated in cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and contributes to the upregulation of downstream effector TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Tiparp) during infection. Knockdown of Tiparp reduced viral replication and increased interferon expression, suggesting it functions in a proviral manner during MHV infection. Grunewald et al. 2020
toll-like receptor 4
Tlr4 Imai et al. (2008) observed that mice exposed to SARS produce oxidized phospholipid in their lungs and that Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) deficient mice display natural resistance to lung injury. Direct relevance to SARS pathology not certain.Imai et al. 2008
transmembrane protease, serine 2
Tmprss2TMPRSS2 encodes the protease that "primes" the S-protein, necessary for SARS-CoV to bind to ACE2 (Matsuyama et al. 2010; Bertram et al. 2011). Using mouse models, Iwata-Yoshikawa et al. (2019), demonstrated that the loss of the Tmprss2 protein in airways reduces the severity of lung damage following infection by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV suggesting that TMPRSS2 may be a good target for treatment of coronavirus infection.Matsuyama et al. 2010
Bertram et al. 2011
Iwata-Yoshikawa et al. 2016
tripartite motif-containing 55
Trim55Genetic mapping using Collaborative Cross mice revealed Trim55 as a gene contributing to lung pathology (inflammation and vascular cuffing) in SARS-CoV infected mice. It is not known if human TRIM55 also contributes to these pulmonary phenotypes following infection with SARS-CoV.Gralinsky et al. 2015
zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA binding motif containing 1
Zcrb1Tan et al. (2012) demonstrated that small interfering RNA (siRNA) against human ZCRB1 (aka, MADP1) led to defective viral RNA synthesis in SARS-CoV in knockdown cells, indicating the importance of the protein in coronaviral RNA synthesis. No studies have been published using mouse models. Tan et al. 2012
Research described in preprints is not peer reviewed. The reported findings have not been validated.
Coronavirus  Mouse Strain Name  Reported Mouse Strain SourceStudy Type  Reference  Summary
SARS-CoVMuc4tm1Unc on a C57BL/6NTac genetic backgroundScott Randell of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Rowson-Hode et al. 2018
Coronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Plante et al., 2020. bioRxiv.In this study investigators followed up on a previously mapped QTL in Collaborative Cross mice to identify genes associated with low SARS-CoV viral titer.

By evaluating gene expression of genes in the previously identified QTL region in founder strains of CC mice, mucin 4 (Muc4) emerged as a candidate gene to explain differences in viral titer.

The loss of Muc4 gene function did not result in significant differences in viral load or distribution in male and female Muc4-/- mice. Female Muc4-/- mice did, however, show significant weight loss compared to mutant male mice. The investigators conclude that Muc4 does not play a role in the replication of SARS-CoV virus but does play some role in attenuating the pathology associated with viral infection in mice.
SARS-CoVNSG mice; male and female > 6 weeks old Cleveland Clinic Biological Resources UnitCoronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Baratchian et al., 2020. bioRxiv.Male NSG mice, treated with the androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide did not decrease pulmonary TMPRSS2 expression.

The study finds no evidence for androgen regulation of TMPRSS2 in the male lung and concludes that TMPRSS2 regulation does not account for sex differences in clinical outomes of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, TMPRSS2 regulation in the lung appears to fundamentally differ from a clear androgen-dependent effect in prostatic tissues. Pulmonary TMPRSS2 regulation does not appear to account for the sex bias in COVID-19 clinical outcomes.
SARS-CoV-2Mouse strain not specified Source not identifiedCoronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Zeng et al., 2020. bioRxiv.De novo designed untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs (NASAR mRNAs) delivered via lipid-derived nanoparticles were shown to significantly increase expression of potential SARS-CoV-2 antigens both in vitro and in vivo. NASAR mRNAs show promise for further evaluation as vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.
SARS-CoV-2BALB/c Source not identified
(See also Roberts et al. 2007)
Coronavirus infection

Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Weston et al., 2020. bioRxiv. In this study, investigators present data showing that 17 out of 20 FDA approved drugs that previously demonstrated antiviral activity against SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV also inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture (Vero E6 cells) at a range of IC50 values at non-cytotoxic concentrations.

Seven compounds were demonstrated to inhibit infectious SARS-CoV-2 production in cell culture (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, chlorpromazine, amodiaquine dihydrochloride dihydrate, amodiaquine hydrochloride, mefloquine, imatinib).

Chloroquine and chlorpromazine were tested in vivo on 10 week old BALB/c mice using a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV virus (rMA15). Both drugs protected the mice from clinical disease but did not inhibit viral replication.

About SARS-CoV-2

SARS-CoV-2 is positive single strand RNA5 virus and is a member of the Coronaviridae family of viruses which are known to target the respiratory systems of mammals. There are four genera within Coronaviridae: alpha, beta, delta, and gamma. Only alpha and beta genera are transmissible to humans.

Although the genome of SARS-CoV-2 is similar to the zoonotic coronaviruses SARs-CoV and MERS-CoV that caused the SARs outbreak of 2003 and the MERS outbreak of 2012, the emerging evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 did not descend from SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 causes a different range of diseases in humans and has a different transmission efficiency6.

coronavirus tree
Figure 2. The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses taxonomy of Coronaviridae showing the alpha and beta coronaviruses that infect humans. Adapted from Pillaiyar et al., Drug Discovery Today, 2020


  1. Global cases of COVID-19 from The Johns Hopkins University
  2. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard
  3. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine, March 17, 2020.
  4. COVID-19 Vaccine and Treatment Tracker from the Milken Institute
  5. Coronavirus Genome is Bad News Wrapped in a Protein. The New York Times, April 3, 2020.
  6. Taxonomy of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Microbiology, March 2, 2020.
  7. A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing. Nature, April 30, 2020.
  8. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol. October 6, 2020.

Other Research Resources with Special Coronavirus Resources

Additional Mouse & Other Model Organism Resources

Biomedical Ontologies & Vocabularies

  • CIDO: Ontology of Coronavirus Infectious Disease
  • CODO COVID-19 Ontology for Cases and Patient information
  • COVID-19 Surveillance Ontology COVID19
  • Human Disease Ontology (DO) terms for Coronavirus infectious disease
  • Gene Ontology (GO) terms for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
  • Homeostasis Imbalance Process Ontology (HOIP)
  • COVID-19 Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO-COVID- 19)
  • Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 (LOINC)
  • COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 MeSH Terms
  • Protein Ontology (PRO) terms for SARS-CoV-2 proteins
  • SNOMED CT COVID-19 Related Content

Clinical Presentation, Course & Outcome

  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Symptoms of Coronavirus
  • Clinical Data Related to COVID-19 Symptoms and Patient Outcomes from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C)

Epidemiology & COVID-19 Situation Reports

  • Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC): Tracking the Epidemic (2021)
  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) COVID-19 Situation Dashboard: Cases in Europe and Worldwide
  • Global cases of COVID-19 from The Johns Hopkins University
  • NextStrain visualization of the genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus
  • Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) COVID-19 Situation Reports
  • US CDC Genomic Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 Variants
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC COVID-19 Data Tracker) COVID Maps, Charts, and Data
  • Viralzone SARS-CoV-2 Circulating Variants
  • World Health Organization (WHO) Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard

Genes, Molecular Interactions, Pathways & Networks

  • COVID-19 Data Portal from Europe
  • COVID-19 Data Portal from Japan
  • COVID-19 Disease Map: SARS-CoV-2 Virus-Host Interactions
  • The COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (COVID-19 hg)
  • GENCODE: Human Protein-coding Genes Linked to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
  • OncoMX: COVID-19 Biomarkers Database
  • PAGER-CoV: Pathways, Annotated Gene-Lists, and Gene Signatures Related to Coronavirus Diseases
  • Protein Data Bank in Europe Knowledge Base (PDBe-KB): COVID-19 Data Portal
  • Reactome SARS-CoV Infection Pathways
  • UniProt Portal for SARS-CoV-2 Proteins & Receptors
  • WikiPathways: COVID-19 Pathways Portal

Treatments, Therapeutic Interventions & Vaccines

  • Cov19VaxKB: COVID-19 Vaccine Knowledge Base
  • Global Health Drug Discovery Institute (GHDDI): Targeting COVID-19 Portal
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) Treatments & Vaccines for COVID-19
  • Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS): COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker
  • The New York Times Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker
  • US (CDC COVID Data Tracker) Vaccination Data
  • WHO Draft Landscape of COVID-19 Candidate Vaccines

Genome Organization, Sequence Resources, Phylogeny & Taxonomy

  • EBI's NCBI Organismal Classification (NCBITaxon) for Coronaviridae from Ontology Lookup Service (OLS)
  • Elsevier Novel Coronavirus Resource Directory
  • ICTV: International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) SARS-CoV-2 Resources
  • NCBI Taxonomy Browser
  • NextStrain Phylogeny of SARS-like betacoronaviruses
  • NextStrain visualization of the genomic epidemiology of novel coronavirus
  • PDB-101 Molecular Landscapes by David S. Goodsell
  • US CDC Genomic Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 Variants
  • Viralzone SARS-CoV-2 Circulating Variants

Mice In the News

  • STAT News, "From ferrets to mice and marmosets, labs scramble to find right animals for coronavirus studies" (March 5, 2020)
  • Nature, "Labs rush to study coronavirus in transgenic animals – some are in short supply" (March 9, 2020)
  • Bloomberg, "A Virus Cure Depends on Rare Lab Mice, But There Aren’t Enough" (March 11, 2020)
  • STAT News, "Researchers rush to test coronavirus vaccine in people without knowing how well it works in animals" (March 11, 2020)
  • The New York Times, "These lab animals will help fight coronavirus" (March 14, 2020)
  • National Public Radio (NPR) "Mouse Hunt: Lab Races to Grow Mice for COVID-19 Research." (March 14, 2020)
  • Bangor Daily News, "Maine lab starts breeding mice for coronavirus vaccine" (March 18, 2020)
  • Science, "'It’s heartbreaking.' Labs are euthanizing thousands of mice in response to coronavirus pandemic" (Mar. 23, 2020)

  • The Hill, "First peer-reviewed coronavirus vaccine shows promise in mice" (April 2, 2020)
  • Scientific American, "New coronavirus drug shows promise in animal tests" (April 7, 2020)
  • Technology Networks "Antiviral against COVID-19 reduces damage in mouse lungs" (April 7, 2020)
  • Advanced Science News, "Mouse study shows engineered virus could block coronavirus infections" (April 8, 2020)
  • Science, "Mice, hamsters, ferrets, monkeys. Which lab animals can help defeat the new coronavirus?" (April 13, 2020)

  • Knowable Magazine, "Building a mouse squad against Covid-19" (May 14, 2020)
  • NIH News "Microneedle coronavirus vaccine triggers immune response in mice." (April 14, 2020)
  • EurekAlert "Russia creates its own humanized mice to test COVID-19 vaccines and drugs" (May 4, 2020)
  • LabAnimal "Mobilizing animal models against a pandemic" (May 12, 2020)
  • Technology Networks "Mouse Study Explores Why COVID-19 Patients Can Lose Their Sense of Smell" (May 13, 2020)
  • Emerging Microbes & Infections "Animal models for emerging coronavirus: progress and new insights" (May 13, 2020)
  • Scientific American "From Hamsters to Baboons: The Animals Helping Scientists Understand the Coronavirus" (May 14, 2020)
  • WHYY PBS "The great research mouse rescue amid the pandemic" (May 15, 2020)
  • Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News "COVID-19 mouse CRISPR engineered to recapitulate human COVID-19" (May 27, 2020)
  • ScienceDaily "HLH research points to treatment for COVID-19 cytokine storms" (May 28, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Transgenic mouse model of HLH may play key role in saving lives during COVID-19" (May 28, 2020)
  • Times Now "Coronavirus: Mouse model mimics COVID-19 infection in humans, may help test drugs" (May 28, 2020)
  • Taconic "An overview of mouse models for COVID-19" (May 30, 2020)
  • SciTechDaily "New research points to treatment for COVID-19 cytokine storms, solution to global pandemic" (May 31, 2020)
  • RegMedNet "COVID-19 treatment breakthrough using fibroblast cell therapy in mice" (June 1, 2020)
  • HospiMedica "Transgenic mouse that models immune disease's cytokine storms could point to treatment solution for COVID-19" (June 5, 2020)
  • Nordic Life Science News "A vaccine against COVID-19, developed by researchers from the Univ. of Copenhagen, has been tested in mice and shows promising results" (June 10, 2020)
  • Arizona Republic "Mice can't catch COVID-19, so a UA lab is making new kind of mouse" (June 10, 2020)
  • MedicalXpress "COVID-19 mouse model will speed search for drugs, vaccines" (June 10, 2020)
  • The Economist "An animal model of COVID-19 is now available" (June 11, 2020)
  • Study Finds "COVID-19 mouse model may hold key to new treatments, understanding risk factors" (June 13, 2020)
  • MedicalXpress "Off-the-shelf tool for making mouse models of COVID-19" (June 16, 2020)
  • Drug Target Review "Method to convert any mouse into COVID-19 model made available to researchers" (June 22, 2020)
  • The Daily Iowan "University of Iowa researchers develop mice model to study COVID-19 symptoms" (June 28, 2020)
  • The New Yorker "Can designer mice save us from COVID-19?" (August 10, 2020)
  • The New York Times Magazine "How covid sends some bodies to war with themselves" (August 11, 2020)
  • Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis News "Experimental COVID-19 vaccine prevents severe disease in mice" (August 11, 2020)
  • Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis News "Nasal vaccine against COVID-19 prevents infection in mice" (August 21, 2020)
  • The Science Advisory Board "New mouse-adapted models helps accelerate COVID-19 vaccines, therapies" (August 28, 2020)
  • ScienceDaily "Mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 model provides new tool for COVID-19 discoveries" (August 31, 2020)
  • bneINTELLINEWS "Slovenian researchers develop coronavirus vaccine effective in mice" (September 1, 2020)
  • The New York Times "How the coronavirus attacks the brain" (September 9, 2020)
  • TheWeek News India "NII's potential COVID-19 vaccine shows encouraging results in study on mice" (September 12, 2020)
  • LIVE SCIENCE "The new coronavirus can infect brain cells, study finds" (September 13, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Keto diet could be beneficial for elderly COVID-19 patients" (September 14, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Nasal spray COVID-19 vaccine shows promising results in mice" (October 12, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Obesity changes ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in mice: Implications for COVID-19" (October 18, 2020)
  • GlobeNewsWire "Global mice model market report 2020-2025: impact of COVID-19 - increasing demand for humanized mice models" (October 19, 2020)
  • ScienceNews "How two immune system chemicals may trigger COVID-19’s deadly cytokine storms" (October 30, 2020)
  • Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News "COVID-19 nanoparticle vaccine elicits high levels of protective antibodies in mice" (November 3, 2020)
  • The Scientist "The many model systems of COVID-19" (November 4, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Promising yeast-expressed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate effective in mice" (November 9, 2020)
  • FIERCE Biotech "Adagio's COVID-19 antibody protects mice and zaps related viruses in lab tests" (November 20, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Transgenic mouse model could recapitulate severe COVID-19 in humans" (November 26, 2020)
  • Drug Target Review "COVID-19 vaccine candidate is 96.4 percent effective in mice, study shows" (December 1, 2020)
  • LaboratoryEquipment.com "Repurposed mouse model sheds light on loss of smell in COVID-19 patients" (December 2, 2020)
  • FIERCE Biotech "COVID-19 vaccines based on novel platforms show early promise in mice" (December 3, 2020)
  • Medicine at Michigan "Making a new mouse could transform COVID-19 research" (Autumn 2020)
  • TexasStandard "Meet the lab mice helping scientists find a COVID-19 vaccine" (December 7, 2020)
  • MedicalXpress "Scientists discover how COVID-19 virus causes multiple organ failure in mice" (December 8, 2020)
  • The Science Times "Inhaled vaccines show effectiveness in strengthening immune response in mice, primates" (December 11, 2020)
  • News-Medical.Net "Modified Vaccinia Ankara model vaccine prevents COVID-19 in transgenic mice study" (January 6, 2021)
  • Science Daily "Single-dose COVID-19 vaccine triggers antibody response in mice" (January 8, 2021)
  • Science Daily "Study finds COVID-19 attack on brain, not lungs, triggers severe disease in mice" (January 19, 2021)
  • EurekAlert "NSAIDs might exacerbate or suppress COVID-19 depending on timing, mouse study suggests" (January 22, 2021)
  • Yahoo News "Researchers found far higher levels of coronavirus in the brains of mice than the lungs - a possible explanation for neurological symptoms" (January 28, 2021)
  • Mount Desert Islander "Mouse research aids COVID-19 response" (January 29, 2021)
  • Karolinska Institutet News "COVID-19 vaccine from new vaccine platform effective in mice" (February 4, 2021)
  • News-Medical.Net "Emory MVA COVID-19 vaccine proven safe and effective in mice and monkeys" (February 4, 2021)
  • The New York Times "Could a single vaccine work against all coronaviruses?" (February 9, 2021)
  • University of Maryland Baltimore News "Novavax Vaccine Demonstrates Strong Immune Response" (February 9, 2021)
  • MedicalNewsToday "COVID-19: Antiviral prevents and treats infection in lab tests" (February 12, 2021)
  • News-Medical.Net "New mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection reflects features of human infection" (February 14, 2021)
  • News-Medical.Net "SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccine tested in animal model" (February 21, 2021)
  • CGTN Science News "Influenza virus can promote COVID-19 infection in cells, mice" (February 21, 2021)
  • News-Medical.Net "Novel protein construct prevents lethal COVID-19 in mice" (March 16, 2021)
  • Global News "COVID-19: No variants can escape human antibodies yet, though some can infect mice" (March 19, 2021)
  • News-Medical.Net "A new COVID-19 candidate vaccine induces robust humoral and cellular immune responses in mice" (March 23, 2021)
  • Fierce Biotech "CureVac's COVID-19 mRNA vaccine protects mice against aggressive coronavirus variant" (March 24, 2021)
  • News-Medical.Net "Neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in mice depend on Fc effector function" (March 24, 2021)
  • WebMD "COVID variants detected in animals, may find hosts in mice" (March 25, 2021)
  • Forbes "From cats and dogs to minks and mice, COVID-19 variants are infecting the ecosystem" (March 26, 2021)
  • The New York Times "Virus variants can infect mice, scientists report" (March 31, 2021)

Contributing Projects:
Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO)
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