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Inbred Strains of Rats: LEW


Inbr. F?+96.

Colour: Albino

Genet: a, h, c.

Origin: Dr. Margaret Lewis from Wistar stock, to Aptekman and Bogden 1954 at F20, to Silvers in 1958 at F31. Subsequently distributed by Silvers. Used as the inbred partner for a number of congenic strains at the major histocompatibility complex (Stark and Kren 1969). A substrain with congenital hydrocephalus due to primary aqueductal stenosis has been described by Yamada et al, (1992)



Low relative heart weight in 10-week old males (4/23) (Tanase et al 1982).


Docile. High response to operant morphine-reinforced behaviour (1/4) (Ambrosio et al 1995). Has a weak 24-hr. rhythm in wheel running activity when compared with ACI (Siebert and Wollnik 1991). Can be triggered into paradoxical sleep by dark pulse stimulation (ie. turning off the lights), in contrast with BN (Leung et al, 1992). Develops larger acoustic and tactile startle response than strain F344, which may be associated with strain differences in hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal activation (Glowa et al,1992).

Lifespan and spontaneous disease

Survival 26% at 2 years (Lindsey et al 1968). In a study involving 305 female and 324 male rats of the LEW/Han substrain, mean lifespan in females was 27.7_5.1 months, in males 32.5_6.6 months. In both sexes the lifespan was mainly determined by the occurrence of neoplasms. Of the large spectrum of 52 histologically different types of tumours, the highest incidence was observed for adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland tumours and endometrial carcinomas (45%) in females, and C-cell adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the thyroid gland and tumours of the haemopoietic system (28%) in males (Baum et al, 1995).


Sensitive to the development of a number of experimental autoimmune conditions including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis after challenge with guinea pig myelin basic protein (McFarlin et al 1975a, b, Hughes and Stedronska 1973, Perlik and Zidek 1974, Gasser et al 1975, Willenborg 1979), induced autoimmune myocarditis (Friedman et al 1970), autologous immune complex glomerulonephritis (linked to the MHC) (Stenglein et al 1975, Watson and Dixon 1966, Kelchner et al 1976), adjuvent-induced arthritis (Perlik and Zidek 1974, Koga et al 1973), streptococcal and Lactobacillus casei cell wall induced arthritis (Cromartie et al 1977, Clark et al 1979, Wilder et al 1982, 1983, 1987, Lehman et al 1983), reactive arthritis induced by Yersinia enterocolitica (Hill and Yu 1987), allergic orchitis (Levine and Sowinski 1970), autoallergic sialadenitis (a model of Sjogren's disease) (Cutler et al 1987), and experimental autoimmune myesthenia gravis (Lennon et al 1975, Biesecker and Koffler 1988 (7/9)). Response may be modified by microflora (Kallen and Logdberg 1982). Epitope specificities of collagen-induced arthritis studied by Cremer et al (1992). DA is sensitive whereas LEW are relatively resistant to oil-induced arthritis using Freund's incomplete adjuvent (Holmdahl et al, 1992, 1994). Following lethal irradiation and re-constitution with syngeneic bone marrow and given cyclosporin A for several weeks these rats will develop cyclosporin-induced autoimmunity after withdrawal of the cyclosporin. The condition resembles graft-versus host disease in terms of acute dermatitis and chronic scleroderma. BN rats do not develop this disease (Wodzig et al, 1993). Highly susceptible to the induction of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and endotoxin-induced uveitis which appears to be associated with the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by retinal Muller glia and retinal pigmented epithelium. Strain BN is resistant (Dekozak et al, 1994). Susceptible to the induction of EAU by interphotoreceptor retinol-binding protein (cf WKAH, W/M, LEJ and BUF, but in contrast with TO) (Sasamoto et al, 1994).

Moderately sensitive to the development of experimental glomerulonephritis following injection of nephritogenic antigen from bovine renal basement membrane (2/10) (Naito et al, 1991)

Susceptible to the induction of proteinuria following treatment with the monoclonal antibody 5-6-1, like BN and outbred Wistar, but unlike resistant outbred Sprague-Dawley rats which were also resistant to glomerular damage (Gollner et al, 1995).

A substrain (initially designated Le-R, but now re-named strain LER), resistant to the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis but which is still histocompatible with LEW has been described by Waxman et al (1981) and Driscoll et al (1985). Gasser et al (1983) suggested that the resistance is probably due to a non-MHC-linked mutation. However, it now seems that resistance is due to genetic contamination by BUF strain rats (Goldmuntz et al, 1993, see strain LER).

About half of females sensitised against H-Y antigen accept skin grafts from neonatal sygeneic males, and about half of these will subsequently accept skin from adult males (Silvers and Collins 1979). High antibody response to concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin (Williams et al 1973). Interferon production in response to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytodilic acid 20-40 fold higher than that observed in six other inbred strains. The effect is due to more than one gene, and is not associated with the MHC (Davis et al 1984). Resident macrophages (ramified microglea) of the central nervous system are not constitutively major histocompatibility complex class-II positive, in contrast with BN (Sedgwick et al, 1993). Mercury (HgCl2) stimulates peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages to produce hydrogen peroxide, in contrast with strain BN (Contrino et al, 1992). Resistant to the development of autoimmunity from skin-injected HgCl2 , in contrast to BN (Warfvinge and Larsson, 1994). Poor (5/5) antibody response to a synthetic 20 amino acid peptide derived from the alpha helical region of the RT1-D-u beta chain (Murphy et al, 1994). Although DA and LEW are both highly susceptible to the development of EAE, there are marked differences in the array of myelin epitopes capable of inducing the disease as well as MHC restriction of these epitopes between the two strains (Stepaniak et al, 1995).

Highly susceptible to inflammatory disease due to deficient glucocorticoid counter-regulation of the immune response resulting from deficient corticotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness. Have significantly more benzodiazepine binding sites than F344, though there was no difference in affinities (Smith et al, 1992 see also Oitzl et al, 1995). No differences between LEW and F344 in the sensitivity of target tissues to exogenous glucocorticoids which could be associated with differences in susceptibility to inflammatory disease (Karalis et al, 1995).

Biochemistry and Physiology

High fertility. High serum thyroxine, insulin and growth hormone levels (1/5 in each case) (Esber et al 1974). Becomes obese on a high fat diet (rank 2/7)(Schemmel et al 1970). High hepatic metabolism of ethylmorphine in females (3/10) (Page and Vesell 1969). Short gestation period (3/8) (Peters 1986). Low blood pressure (22/23), reaching 119_2.0 (SEM) mmHg at 10 weeks of age (Tanase et al 1982). Liver gangliosides are of the a-type (cf ACI, LEA, & BUF) (Kasai et al 1993). Rapid metaboliser of MPPB (F344 is slow) (Takahara et al 1993). Have substantially lower levels of diurnal and stress related corticosterone levels with higher levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin in plasma, spleen and thymus than F344 rats (Dhabhar et al, 1993). Lower concentrations of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors compared with F344 and outbred Spargue-Dalwey rats (Burnet et al, 1994).

Hackbarth et al (1981) report on kidney function in this and other strains. Hackbarth et al (1983) report on haematological parameters in relation to several other strains.

Drugs and chemicals

Long pentobarbitone sleeping time in males (3/10) but short time in females (10/10) (Vieregge et al 1987). High serum ceruloplasmin levels (Stolc 1984). Compared with F344, LEW rats show a much higher preference for several classes of drugs of abuse. This may be associated with lower levels of neurofilament proteins in the ventral tegmental area of the brain (Guitart et al, 1992). Duration of morphine-induced EEG slow-wave bursts and associated behavioural stupor was greater in LEW than F344 rats (Myomichelson and Young, 1993). LEW rats self-administer more morphine and drugs of abuse than F344 rats (Gosnell and Krahn, 1993, Glowa et al, 1994, Ambrosio et al, 1995). Duration of EEG slow-wave bursts and behavioural stupor also longer in LEW than F344 following administration of ethylketocyclazocine, suggesting differences in opioid-related receptor populations between these strains (Mayomichelson and Young, 1993). Cocaine conditioned place preference was greater in LEW than F344 rats (Kosten et al, 1994). Susceptible to the induction of glandular stomach adenocarcinomas following treatment with catechol (contrast WKY) (Tanaka et al, 1995)


Young animals susceptible to Borrelia burgdorferi-induced arthritic lesions resembling those found in human Lyme disease (Barthold et al 1988). Susceptible to the induction of encephalitis by coronavirus, with a much longer delay in lymphocyte proliferation following infection than in the resistant BN strain (Imrich et al, 1994). Susceptible (1/4) to ocular infection with herpes simplex virus with death following 4 x 104 plaque forming units (pfu). PVG was relatively resistant (Nicholls et al, 1994).

Barthold S. W., Moody K. D., Terwilliger G. A., Jacoby R. O., and Steere A. C. (1988) An animal model for Lyme arthritis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 539, 264-273. \par

Baum A., Pohlmeyer G., Rapp K. G., and Deerberg F. (1995) Lewis rats of the inbred strain LEW/Han - life expectancy, spectrum and incidence of spontaneous neoplasms. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 47, 11-18. \par

Biesecker G. and Koffler D. (1988) Resistance to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in genetically inbred rats. J. Immunol. 140, 3406-3410. \par

Burnet P. W. J., Michelson D., Smith M. A., Gold P. W., and Sternberg E. M. (1994) The effect of chronic imipramine administration on the densities of 5-HT1a and 5-HT2 receptors and the abundancies of 5-HT receptor and transporter messenger-RNA in the cortex, hippocampus and dorsal raphe of 3 strains of rat. Brain Res. 638, 311-324. \par

Clark R. L., Cuttino J. T., Anderle S. R., Cromartie W. J., and Schwab J. H. (1979) Radiologic analysis of arthritis in rats after systemic injection of streptococcal cell walls. Arthritis Rheum. 22, 25-35. \par

Cremer M. A., Terato K., Watson W. C., Griffiths M. M., Townes A. S., and Kang A. H. (1992) Collagen-induced arthritis in rats - examination of the epitope specificities of circulating and cartilage-bound antibodies produced by outbred and inbred rats using cyanogen bromide-derived peptides purified from heterologous and homologous type-II collagens. J. Immunol. 149, 1045-1053. \par

Cromartie W. J., Craddock J. C., Schwab J. H., Anderle S. K., and Yang C. H. (1977) Arthritis in rats after systemic injection of streptococcal cells or cell walls. J. Exp. Med. 146, 1585-1602. \par

Cutler L. S., Bullis D., and Greiner D. L. (1987) Experimental autoallergic sialadenitis in the LEW rat: A reproducible animal model of Sjogren's syndrome. Transplant. Proc. 19, 3196-3198. \par

Davis C. T., Blankenhorn E. P., and Murasko D. M. (1984) Genetic variaion in the ability of several strains of rats to produce interferon in response to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytodilic acid. Infect. Immun. 43, 580-583. \par

Dekozak Y., Naud M. C., Bellot J., Faure J. P., and Hicks D. (1994) Differential tumor-necrosis-factor expression by resident retinal cells from experimental uveitis-susceptible and uveitis-resistant rat strains. J. Neuroimmunol. 55, 1-9. \par

Dhabhar F. S., McEwen B. S., and Spencer R. L. (1993) Stress-response, adrenal-steroid receptor levels and corticosteroid- binding globulin levels - a comparison between Sprague-Dawley, Fischer-344 and Lewis rats. Brain Res. 616, 89-98. \par

Driscoll B. F., Kies M. W., and Alvord J. E. C. (1985) The nature of the defect in experimental allergic encaphalomyelitis (EAE)-resistant Lewis (Le-R) rats. J. Immunol. 134, 1567-1570. \par

Esber H. J., Menninger F. F. Jr., and Bogden A. E. (1974) Variation in serum hormone concentrations in different rat strains. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 146, 1050-1053. \par

Friedman I., Ron N., Laufer A., and Davies A. M. (1970) Experimental myocarditis: enhancement by the use of pertussis vaccine in Lewis rats. Experientia 26, 1143-1145. \par

Gasser D. L., Palm J., and Gonatas N. K. (1975) Genetic control of susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and the Ag-B locus of rats. J. Immunol. 115, 431-433. \par

Gasser D. L., Hickey W. F., and Gonatas N. K. (1983) The genes for nonsusceptibility to EAE in the Le-R and BH strains are not linked to RT1. Immunogenet. 17, 441-444. \par

Glowa J. R., Geyer M. A., Gold P. W., and Sternberg E. M. (1992) Differential startle amplitude and corticosterone response in rats. Neuroendocrinology 56, 719-723. \par

Glowa J. R., Shaw A. E., and Riley A. L. (1994) Cocaine-induced conditioned taste-aversions - comparisons between effects in LEW/N and F344/N rat strains. Psychopharmacology 114, 229-232. \par

Goldmuntz E. A., Wilder R. L., Goldfarb Y., Cash J. M., Zha H. B., Crofford L. J., Mathern P., Hansen C. T., and Remmers E. F. (1993) The origin of the autoimmune disease-resistant LER rat - an outcross between the Buffalo and autoimmune disease-prone Lewis inbred rat strains. J. Neuroimmunol. 44, 215-219. \par

Gollner D., Kawachi H., Oite T., Oka M., Nagase M., and Shimizu F. (1995) Strain variation in susceptibility to the development of monoclonal- antibody 5-1-6-induced proteinuria in rats. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 101, 341-345. \par

Gosnell B. A. and Krahn D. D. (1993) Morphine-induced feeding - a comparison of the Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rat strains. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 44, 919-924. \par

Guitart X., Beitnerjohnson D., Marby D. W., Kosten T. A., and Nestler E. J. (1992) Fischer and Lewis rat strains differ in basal levels of neurofilament proteins and their regulation by chronic morphine in the mesolimbic dopamine system. Synapse 12, 242-253. \par

Hackbarth H., Baunack E., and Winn M. (1981) Strain differences in kidney function of inbred rats: 1. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. Lab. Anim. 15, 125-128. \par

Hackbarth H., Burow K., and Schimansky G. (1983) Strain differences in inbred rats: Influence of strain and diet on haematological traits. Lab. Anim. 17, 7-12. \par

Hill J. L. and Yu D. T. Y. (1987) Development of an expeimental animal model for reactive arthritis induced by Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Infect. Immun. 55, 721-726. \par

Holmdahl R. and Kvick C. (1992) Vaccination and genetic experiments demonstrate that adjuvant-oil- induced arthritis and homologous type-II collagen-induced arthritis in the same rat strain are different diseases. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 88, 96-100. \par

Imrich H., Schwender S., Hein A., and Dorries R. (1994) Cervical lymphoid-tissue but not the central-nervous-system supports proliferation of virus-specific T-lymphocytes during coronavirus- induced encephalitis in rats. J. Neuroimmunol. 53, 73-81. \par

Kallen B. and Logdberg L. (1982) Low susceptibility to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a substrain of the otherwise susceptible Lewis rat. Eur. J. Immunol. 12, 596-599. \par

Karalis K., Crofford L., Wilder R. L., and Chrousos G. P. (1995) Glucocorticoid and/or glucocorticoid antagonist effects in inflammatory disease-susceptible Lewis rats and inflammatory disease- resistant Fischer rats. Endocrinol. 136, 3107-3112. \par

Kasai N., Kamimura A., Miyoshi I., and Ariga T. (1993) Ganglioside distribution in the liver of inbred strains of rats and the cancerous liver of LEC rats. Journal of Biochemistry 113, 251-257. \par

Kelchner J., McIntosh J. R., Beedecker E., Guggenheim S., and McIntosh R. M. (1976) Experimental autologous immune deposit nephritis in rats associated with mercuric chloride administration. Experientia 32, 1204-1208. \par

Koga T., Pearson C. M., Narita T., and Kotani S. (1973) Polyarthritis induced in the rat with cell walls from several bacteria and two Streptomyces species. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 143, 824-827. \par

Kosten T. A., Miserendino M. J. D., Chi S., and Nestler E. J. (1994) Fischer and Lewis rat strains show differential cocaine effects in conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization but not in locomotor-activity or conditioned taste-aversion. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therapeut. 269, 137-144. \par

Lehman T. J. A., Allen J. B., Plotz P. H., and Wilder R. L. (1983) Polyarthritis in rats following the systemic injection of Lactobacilus casei cell walls in aqueous suspension. Arthritis Rheum. 26, 1259-1265. \par

Lennon V. A., Lindstrom J. M., and Seybold M. E. (1975) Experimental autoimmune myasthenia: A model of myasthenia gravis in rats and guinea pigs. J. Exp. Med. 141, 1365-1375. \par

Leung C., Bergmann B. M., Rechtschaffen A., and Benca R. M. (1992) Heritability of dark pulse triggering of paradoxical sleep in rats. Physiol. Behav. 52, 127-131. \par

Levine S. and Sowinski R. (1970) Allergic inflammation, infarction and induced localization in the testes. Am. J. Pathol. 59, 437-451. \par

Lindsey S., Nichols C. W. Jr., and Chaikoff I. L. (1968) Naturally occurring thyroid carcinoma in the rat. Similarities to human medullary carcinoma. Arch. Pathol. 86, 353-364. \par

McFarlin D. E., Hsu S. C.-L., Slemenda S. B., Chou S. C.-H., and Kibler and R. F. (1975a) The immune response against an encephalitogenic fragment of guinea pig basic protein in the Lewis and Brown Norway strains of rat. J. Immunol. 115, 1456-1458. \par

Murphy G., Dalchau R., Parker K. E., Sawyer G. J., Carter C. A., and Fabre J. W. (1994) T-cell recognition of an allogeneic RT1-dbu class-II MHC peptide. Immunology Letters 41, 195-199. \par

Naito I., Kagawa M., Sado Y., and Okigaki T. (1991) Strain specific responses of inbred rats on the severity of experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis - presence of a broad- spectrum of the susceptibility. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 4, 145-154. \par

Nicholls S. M., Benylles A., Shimeld C., Easty D. L., and Hill T. J. (1994) Ocular infection with herpes-simplex virus in several strains of rat. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 35, 3260-3267. \par

Oitzl M. S., Vanhaarst A. D., Sutanto W., and Dekloet E. R. (1995) Corticosterone, brain mineralocorticoid-receptors (MRS) and the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis - the lewis rat as an example of increased central MR-capacity and a hyporesponsive HPA-axis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 20, 655-675. \par

Page J. G. and Vesell E. S. (1969) Hepatic drug metabolism in ten strains of Norway rat before and after pretreatment with phenobarbital. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 131, 256-261. \par

Perlik F. and Zideck Z. (1974) The susceptibility of several inbred strains of rats to adjuvant-induced arthritis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Z. Immunitactsforsch. Exp. Klin. Immunol. 147, 191-193. \par

Peters A. (1986) Length of gestation period in eight inbred strains and three outbred stocks of rats. Animal Technology 37, 109-112. \par

Sasamoto Y., Kotake S., Yoshikawa K., Wiggert B., Gery I., and Matsuda H. (1994) Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-derived peptide can induce experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in various rat strains. Current Eye Research 13, 845-849. \par

Schemmel R., Mickelsen O., and Gill J. L. (1970) Dietary obesity in rats: Body weight and body fat accretion in seven strains of rats. J. Nutrit. 100, 1041-1048. \par

Sedgwick J. D., Schwender S., Gregersen R., Dorries R., and Termeulen V. (1993) Resident macrophages (ramified microglia) of the adult Brown Norway rat central-nervous-system are constitutively major histocompatibility complex class-II positive. J. Exp. Med. 177, 1145-1152. \par

Siebert U. and Wollnik F. (1991) Wheel-running activity rhythms in 2 inbred strains of laboratory rats under different photoperiods. Physiol. Behav. 50, 1137-1143. \par

Silvers W. K. and Collins N. H. (1979) The behavior of H-Y-incompatible neonatal skin grafts in rats. Transplant. 28, 57-59. \par

Smith C. C., Hauser E., Renaud N. K., Leff A., Aksentijevich S., Chrousos G. P., Wilder R. L., Gold P. W., and Sternberg E. M. (1992) Increased hypothalamic [H-3] flunitrazepam binding in hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis hyporesponsive Lewis rats. Brain Res. 569, 295-299. \par

Stark O. and Kren V. (1969) Five congenic resistant lines of rats differing at the Rt. H-1 locus. Transplant. 8, 200-203. \par

Stenglein B., Thoenes G. H., and Gunther E. (1975) Genetically controlled autologous immune complex glomerulonephritis in rats. J. Immunol. 115, 895-897. \par

Stepaniak J. A., Gould K. E., Sun D. M., and Swanborg R. H. (1995) A comparative-study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis and DA rats. J. Immunol. 155, 2762-2769. \par

Stolc V. (1984) Genetic polymorphism of ceruloplasmin levels in the rat. J. Hered. 70, 145-146. \par

Takahara E., Nagata O., Kato H., Ohta S., and Hirobe M. (1993) Interindividual differences of (+)-4-[4-(4-methylphenyl)phenylmethoxy-1-piperidinyl]butyric acid ((+)-mppb) disposition in rats. Biol. Pharmaceut. Bull. 16, 1057-1059. \par

Tanaka H., Hirose M., Hagiwara A., Imaida K., Shirai T., and Ito N. (1995) Rat strain differences in catechol carcinogenicity to the stomach. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 93-98. \par

Tanase H., Yamori Y., Hansen C. T., and Lovenberg W. (1982) Heart size in inbred strains of rats. Part 1. Genetic determination of the development of cardiovascular enlargement in rats. Hypertension 4, 864-872. \par

Vieregge V. T., Hackbarth H., and Bercher P. (1987) Die Pentobarbitalschlafzeit zur pharmakogenetischen Differenzierung von Ratteninzuchtstammen. Z. Versuchstierk. 29, 209-217. \par

Watson J. I. and Dixon F. J. (1966) Experimental glomerulonephritis. IX. Factors influencing the development of kidney in adjuvant nephritis in rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 121, 216-223. \par

Waxman F. J., Perryman L. E., Hinrichs D. J., and Coe J. E. (1981) Genetic resistance to the induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. I. Genetic analysis of an apparent mutant strain with phenotypic resistance to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Exp. Med. 153, 61-74. \par

Wilder R. L., Calandra G. B., Garvin A. J., Wright K. D., and Hansen C. T. (1982) Strain and sex variation in the susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall-induced polyarthritis in the rat. Arthritis Rheum. 25, 1064-1072. \par

Willenborg D. O. (1979) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat: Studies on the mechanism of recovery from disease and acquired resistance to reinduction. J. Immunol. 123, 1145-1150. \par

Williams R. M., Moore M. J., and Benacerraf B. (1973) Genetic control of thymus-derived cell function. III. DNA synthetic responses of rat lymph node cells stimulated in culture with concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. J. Immunol. 111, 1571-1578. \par

Wodzig K. W. H., Majoor G. D., and Vriesman P. J. C. V. (1993) Susceptibility and resistance to cyclosporine-A-induced autoimmunity in rats. Autoimmunity 16, 29-37. \par

Yamada H., Oi S., Tamaki N., Matsumoto S., and Sudo K. (1992) Histological-changes in the midbrain around the aqueduct in congenital hydrocephalic rat LEW/Jms. Childs Nervous System 8, 394-398. \par

Updated 9 Apr. 1998
Michael FW Festing
MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,
University of Leicester, UK

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