of Mice: SWR
Inbr: F148 (J). Albino. Genet: c, rd.
Origin: Swiss mice from
A. de Coulon of Lausanne, inbred by Lynch from about 1926 (Lynch,
). Now widely used in research as a general-purpose strain. Develops
extreme polydipsia and polyuria on ageing. Maint. by J, Ola.
Low percent carcass lipid on a high-fat diet (1/9) (West
et al 1992
Low intrastrain aggression (11/14) (Southwick
and Clark, 1966
). High avoidance conditionability (1/9) (Royce,
). Poor T-maze learning (5/6) (Stasik, 1970
Low spontaneous bar-pressing activity (14/14) (Southwick and Clark, 1968
). Ten "non-taster" congenic strains
on the SWR "taster" genetic background have been developed by repeated
backcrossing with selection for inability to taste bitter compounds including
raffinose undecaacetate, glucose pentaacetate and brucine (Harder et al, 1996
Life-span and spontaneous disease
Life-span in conventional conditions intermediate in males (14/22 = 616
days) but short in females (7/22 = 496 days) (Storer,
1966). Pulmonary tumours 80% in mice living to 18 months (Heston,
1963). Mammary tumours 7-28% (Deringer, 1970).
Develops extreme polydipsia and polyuria (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus)
on ageing (Kutscher et al., 1975; Kutscher and Schmalback, 1975k, 1975). Low gross tumour
incidence in females (19/22) (Storer, 1967).
One or more tumours found in 62% of mice. Lung tumours 36%, mammary tumours
30% (Rabstein et al., 1973., 1973).
Arteriosclerosis common (Russell and Meier,
1966). About 10-25% of SWRxSWXJ-9 F1 hybrid mice spontaneously develop
granulosa cell tumours. These secrete inhibin, which can be used as a
marker for tumour-bearing animals (Gocze et
Normal physiology and biochemistry
High metabolic rate (4/18) (Storer, 1967). High
serum ceruloplasmin levels (7/27 in females, 7/26 in males) (Meier and MacPike, 1968). High systolic blood pressure
(1/19) (Schlager and Weibust, 1967).
Low plasma cholesterol levels (3/11) but high triglyceride levels (10/11)
(Jiao et al 1990). Low sensitivity to thyrotropin
(18/21) (Levy et al., 1965., 1965). Low
erythrocyte catalase (15/18) (Hoffman and
Rechcigl, 1971). High kidney and liver arylsulphatase activity (3/12)
(Daniel, 1976). High spermatazoal beta-glucuronidase
activity (1/9) (Erickson, 1976). Arterial
blood has a high pH (1/10) (Bernstein, 1966).
Low hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthetase activity after DDC treatment
(12/15) (Gross and Hutton, 1971). Resistant
to the development of obesity assocaited with adipocyte insensitivity
to insulin (contrast AKR/J) (Eberhart et
al, 1994). Consume 30% fewer calories than susceptible AKR mice,with
a significantly higher intake of carbohydrate (62 vs 24%) (Smith et al, 1997).
High susceptibility to transplacental tumour induction by 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea
(2/5) (Diwan et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant
to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 9/22) (Thomas
et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant to the development of uterine tumours
following treatment with DMBA at 4-weeks of age (cf 3/6) (Tsubura et al, 1993
). Susceptible to colon carcinogenesis
by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (cf. 3/7) (Evans et
., 1977). Resistant to teratogenic effects of acetazolamide
(6/6) (Green et al., 1973
., 1973). Susceptible
to `CNS syndrome' from high doses of X-irradiation (5/5) (Yuhas,
). Long survival in 90% oxygen (2/10) (Lieberman and Kellog, 1967
). Low LD50 to X-irradiation (8/9)
(Yuhas and Storer, 1969
). Sensitive to
X-irradiation (9/10 females, 7/10 males) (Storer,
). Susceptible to toxic effects of isoniazid (9/10) (Taylor, 1976b).
Sensitive to seizures induced by nicotine (17/19) (Marks et al 1989
). Low voluntary comsumption of morphine in
two-bottle choice situation (15/15) (Belknap
et al, 1993
). A diet containing 15% dairy fat, 1% cholesterol and
0.5% cholic acid caused a high incidence of cholesterol gallstones (like
C57L, A, contrast SM, AKR, DBA/2) (Faulkner
et al, 1995
). Prolonged administration of 2mg 5-aminolevulinic acid/ml
of drinking water resulted in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase insufficiency
(11% of controls) and uroporphyria within eight weeks (contrast DBA/2)
(Constantin et al, 1996
Susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) (2/18) (Levine and Sowinski, 1973
). High susceptibility
to EAE (2/10) with high severity (1/10) and mortality (2/10) and spontaneous
relapse (4/10) (Lindsey, 1996
phytohaemmagglutinin response (36/43) (Heiniger
et al., 1975
., 1975). Poor immune response to low doses of bovine
gammaglobulin (cf. 4/8) (Levine and Vaz, 1970
Poor immune response to ovomucoid, but good response to ovalbumin (cf.
6/12) (Vaz et al., 1971
., 1971). Large quantity
of antibody produced (2/7), but only intermediate relative affinity (4/7)
(Alpers et al., 1972
., 1972). Erythrocytes
have low agglutinability (cf. 11/25) (Rubinstein
et al., 1974
., 1974). Susceptible to induction of experimental autoimmune
thyroiditis (cf. 3/5) (Vladutiu and Rose, 1971a). Resistant to the induction
of arthritis by type II collagen (Ortman et
). Develop allergic conjunctivitis and specific anti-ragweel
IgE following topical exposure of the nasal and conjunctival mucosa ragweed.
The effects were reduced in mice treated with nedocromil sodium (Marayo-Lloves
et al, 1996).
Susceptible to herpes simplex virus (10/11) (Lopez,
). Susceptible to LCM virus infection (5/5) (Oldstone and Dixon, 1968
). Encephalomyocarditis virus causes
diabetes mellitus (cf. 7/14) (Boucher et
., 1975). In contrast to ten other strains, it does not carry
type I and II endogenous type C viruses (cf. NZB) (Stephenson et al., 1975
., 1975). Carries no detectable
endogenous ecotropic MuLV DNA sequences (Jenkins
et al 1982
). Susceptible to immune-mediated central nervous system
demyelination following infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis
virus. This is genetically dominant. One copy of H2q
is sufficient for the disease, but an additional non-H2
is also implicated (Nicholson et al, 1995
Rapid immunological expulsion of Trichinella spiralis worms (Wakelin and Donachie 1980). Susceptible
to Lyme borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) when inoculated at
3 weeks of age (2/5) and as adults. Mice inoculated at age 3 weeks also
developed polyarthritis. (Barthold et al
1990). Mouse mammary tumor proviral loci have been identified by Lee
and Eicher (1990). An ecotropic murine leukemia
virus (MuLV) isolate can infect the thecal cells surrounding the follicles
in the ovary and the Leydig cells in the testis. Both types actively synthesize
viral RNA and express a viral antigen and can infect the germ line or
the early embryo or both when inoculated at birth (Panthier et al 1989).
Pattern of infection with Leishmania major depends on site of innoculation
of parasite, in contrast with BALB/c and most other mouse strains, where
route of infection is not critical (Nabors
and Farrell, 1994).
Develop severe myocarditis following infection with Coxsackie virus B3
(Zhang et al, 1994).
Prolific ovulators in response to exogenous hormones and the one-cell embryos
have large and prominant pronuclei with good resistance to lysis following
microinjection. The strain, like strain FVB, is highly suitable for the
propogation of transgenes particularly as it is genetically well defined
(Osman et al, 1997
High degree of genetic distinctiveness (1/27) (Taylor,
). Large brain/body weight ratio (5/20) (Roderick et al., 1973
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INBRED STRAINS OF MICE
Updated 9 Apr. 1998
MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,
University of Leicester,