of Mice: SJL
Inbr: F104 (J). Albino. Genet: c, p, rd.
Origin: Swiss Webster
outbred stock from three sources that were brought to The Jackson Laboratory
between 1938 and 1943, and pen-bred until 1955, when sib-mating was started.
Although the strain has been developed relatively recently, it has rapidly
become widely used owing to the high incidence of reticulum cell sarcomas
resembling Hodgkin's disease. General biological data on the strain have
been reviewed by Crispens (1973
the pink-eyed dilution gene, p
, which is derived from Asian
mice of the Mus musculus
type (see also strains 129/J, P/J and
FS/Ei) (Brilliant et al, 1994
High spontaneous fighting (Page and Glenner,
). Severe fighting among males housed together, beginning at about
8 weeks. Most males will be killed by 4-5 months unless caged separately
Life-span and spontaneous disease
Short life-span in conventional conditions (8/22 = 472 days in males, 3/22
= 395 days in females). High gross tumour incidence (4/22 females, 6/22
males) (Storer, 1966). Reticulum cell sarcomas
appear in about 90% of animals at an average age of about 13 months (Murphy, 1963; Crispens,
1973; Fujinaga et al., 1970., 1970).
These first appear in the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and
later in the spleen, liver, thymus and other lymph nodes (Crispens,
1973). Most of the tumours are pleomorphic or mixed-cell types commonly
called type-B reticulum cell neoplasms by Dunn, but a few are type-A histiocytomas.
The unusual feature of the SJL reticulum cell tumours is their regular
and early appearance, with the preneoplastic lesion detectable as early
as 22 days (Potter, 1972). Tumour development
as well as autoimmunity may result from an effective amplification of
the immune response (Owens and Bonavida, 1976).
Leukaemia 83% (Myers et al., 1970., 1970).
High incidence of spontaneous amyloidosis, possibly associated with fighting
(Page and Glenner, 1972). Develops gamma-l
and gamma-2 paraproteinaemia (Wanebo et al.,
1966., 1966). Hyperplastic neuroretinopathy and disorders of pigment
epithelial cells with a high incidence of subretinal tumor is present
at 9 days (Caffe et al 1993).
Normal physiology and biochemistry
Low plasma cholesterol at 24 weeks (7/8 males, 8/8 females) (Weibust,
1973). High metabolic rate (2/18) (Storer, 1967).
Low serum ceruloplasmin levels in females (23/27) but intermediate in
males (Meier and MacPike, 1968). High systolic
blood pressure (5/19) (Schlager and Weibust,
1967). Low plasma cholinesterase activity in males (20/22) (Angel et al., 1967., 1967). High mean heart rate (1/7),
but low mean heart rate adaptation (7/7) (Blizard
and Welty, 1971). High brain sphingosine (1/5) and low brain sterol
(5/5) (Sampugna et al., 1975., 1975).
Low hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic acid synthetase activity after DDC treatment
(13/15) (Gross and Hutton, 1971). Venous
blood has a low pH (9/10) (Dagg, 1966). Resistant
to the development of atherosclerosis on a semi-synthetic high fat diet
(cf 5/9) (Nishina et al, 1993). High
intrinsic myogenicity of muscle cells both in-vivo and in-vitro (Maley et al, 1994, Mitchell
et al, 1995)).
Low brain weight (17/18 in males, 16/18 in females) (Storer,
). Low brain weight (22/25), small spinal cord (24/25) (Roderick et al., 1973
., 1973). Cerebellum has no intraculminate
fissure between vermian lobule IV and vermian lobule V (the ventral and
dorsal lobules of the culmen) (contrast DBA/2) (Cooper
et al 1991
). Low percent carcass lipid on a high-fat diet (3/9) (West et al 1992
). Low retinal ganglion cell
number (6/24) (Williams et al, 1996
High bone density of femur (4/11) (Beamer
et al, 1996
Resistant to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 9/22) (Thomas
et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant to induction of subcutaneous tumours
by 3-methylcholanthrene (11/14) (Kouri et al.,
., 1973), (9/12) (Whitmire et al.,
., 1971). Resistant to X-irradiation (3/27) (Roderick,
). Poor ovulatory response to 3 I.U. (5/6) and 7 I.U. (5/6) of
PMS, but response facilitated by exposure to males at latter dose rate
only (Zarrow et al., 1971
., 1971). Resistant
to hyperbaric oxygen (14/18) (Hill et al., 1968
1968) Short survival in 90% oxygen (2/10) (Lieberman
and Kellog, 1967
). Resistant to X-irradiation as judged by the LD50
(Yuhas and Storer, 1969
). Susceptible to
induction of splenic amyloidosis by injection of casein (1/7) (Clerici,
). Susceptible to induction of lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia
by DMBA (Crispens, 1973
). Resistant to biliary
tract injury following oral dosing with 500 micrograms of the fungal toxin
sporidesmin (4/4) (Bhathal et al 1990
Airways hyporeactive to acetylcholine (c.f. 3/7) (Zhang
et al, 1995
). Susceptible (cf 5/8) to ozone-induced decreases of tracheal
potential (Takahashi et al, 1995
Low voluntary comsumption of morphine in two-bottle choice situation (12/15)
(Belknap et al, 1993
). Susceptible to
weight loss induced by cocaine, but this is attenuated by anisomycin (cf
C3H, CBA) (Shimosato et al, 1994
Susceptible to induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)
(1/18) (Levine and Sowinski, 1973
susceptibility to induction of EAE (1/10) but moderate mortality (Lindsey,
). Low lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin response (29/43) (Heiniger et al., 1975
., 1975). Poor immune response to
small doses of bovine gamma-globulin (cf. 4/8) (Levine
and Vaz, 1970
). Poor immune response to DNP-keyhole-limpet haemocyanin
(11/11) (Borel and Kilham, 1974
). No immune
response to GAT (random terpolymer of Glu60
) (10/10) (Dorf et al., 1974
1974). Discriminator between `H' and `L' sheep erythrocytes (cf. 12/18)
(McCarthy and Dutton, 1975
). Very sensitive
to anaphylactic shock (Treadwell, 1969
Resistant to induction of immunological tolerance (1/14) (Fujiwara and Cinader, 1974
). Poor immune response to (Pro66
)n (7/7) (Fuchs et al., 1974
1974). High (3/12) susceptibility to IgE- and IgG1
passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (De Souza et al.,
., 1974). Erythrocytes have a high agglutinability (cf. 14/25)
(Rubinstein et al., 1974
Low response to Dextran (cf. 6/10) (Blomberg
et al., 1972
., 1972). Immune response to type-III pneumococcal polysaccharide
declines by 42 weeks, in contrast to BALB/c and C3H (Smith,
). Susceptible to induction of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis
(cf. 2/5) (Vladutiu and Rose, 1971a). Thymocytes exhibit a periodicity
(5-9 days)in their response to hormonal stimulation with isoproterenol.
This is expressed in large changes in the intensity of the response (peak
levels of intracellular cAMP which vary approximately 6-fold), and in
the response pattern, i.e., in the occurrence or non-occurrence of an
immediate hormone-induced desensitization. In contrast, C57BL/6 thymocytes
have a homogeneous response pattern (Riven-Kreitman
et al 1990
). Resistant to immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity
by ultraviolet B light (cf 4/18) (Noonan and
). Low natural killer cell response to the immunostimulent
7-allyl-8-oxoguanosine (6/6) (Pope et al, 1994
Has defective T cell receptor-induced interleukin-4 production and absence
of T-cells with the NK1.1 antigen. However, natural-killer-like T-cells
develop nromally in spite of these defects (Beutner
et al, 1997
). Mast cells grow faster in culture and have more than
twice the amount of histamine and TNF-alpha in their granules than BALB/c
(Bebo et al, 1996
). High level of serum
complement C5 (Lynch and Kay, 1995
Encephalomyocarditis virus causes diabetes mellitus (cf. 7/14) (Boucher et al., 1975
., 1975). High susceptibility to develop
leukaemia on infection with Friend virus (cf. 5/11) (Dietz and Rich, 1972
). Resistant to measles virus (1/6) (Rager-Zisman et al., 1976
Develop flaccid paralysis and survivors develop a distinct neurological
disorder associated with marked mononuclear cell infiltration and active
demyelination in spinal cord after intracerebral inoculation with Theiler's
encephalomyelitis virus. Incubation period may be 2-3 months (Lipton and Dal Canto, 1976
). Resistant to street rabies
virus (SRV) injected via the intraperitoneal route (Perry and Lodmell 1991
). Develops herpes simplex encephalitis
(HSE) resembling the human condition, following intranasal infection with
a neurovirulent clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus type 1 (contrast
9 other strains) (Hudson et al 1991
Resistant to carditis on infection with Lyme borreliosis (Borrelia
burgdorferi) (contrast C3H, SWR, BALB/c)
et al 1990
). High eosinophilia on infection with the helminth Mesocestoides
(1/12) and highly susceptible to infection with the parasite.
Larval burdens at 21 days after infection with 100 tetrathyridia being
considerably higher (greater than 1000) than all other strains except
NIH, which was comparable. (Lammas et al 1990
Susceptibile to infection by Helicobacter felis
to severe chronic active gastritis in the body of the stomach, which increased
over time (cf 4/6) (Sakagami et al, 1996
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INBRED STRAINS OF MICE
Updated 9 Apr. 1998
MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,
University of Leicester,