of Mice: DBA
Origin: Little 1909 from stock segregating for coat
colour. Oldest of all inbred strains of mice. In 1929-30 crosses were
made between substrains, and several new substrains established, including
the widely used substrains /1 and /2. Differences between the substrains
are probably too large to be accounted for by mutation, and are probably
due to substantial residual heterozygosity following the crosses between
substrains. Thus DBA/1 and DBA/2 differ at least at the following loci:
Car2, Ce2, Hc, H2, If1, Lsh, Tla,
large differences, they should probably be regarded as different strains
rather than substrains of the same strain. In this listing the two are
listed separately. DBA/LiA differs from /1 and /2 at the Gpd1
locus, and is similar to DBA/2 at the Tla
locus. Note that unfostered
substrains carry the mammary tumour virus and have a high indicence of
Main substrains are:
Inbr(A) ?+126. Origin: Little to Amsterdam circa 1932. Maint. by A.
Inbr (J) ?+117. Origin: Substrain maintained by Little at the Jackson Laboratory.
Maint. by J,N,Ola.
Inbr (J) 150. Origin: Substrain maintained at the Jackson Laboratory. Maint.
by J,N, Ola.
Characteristics of substrains other than DBA/1 and DBA/2:
Ehling (1964) reported sensitivity to X-irradiation
(1/5). Lung adenomas 1-11% in DBAf/A, and leukaemia 0-% in DBA/LiA and
5-8% in DBAf/A (Muhlbock and Tengbergen,
1971). DBA/Li is resistant to colon carcinogenesis by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine
(cf. 4/7) (Evans et al., 1977., 1977).
For origins see DBA
High food drive (4/15) and high open-field activity (4/15) (Thompson,
). Low open-field activity (11/13) (Bruell,
). Good performance in food-seeking task (2/6) (Henderson,
). Low preference for sweet tasting substances (saccharin, sucrose,
dulcin and acesulfame, averaged) (23/26) (Lush 1988
Life-span and spontaneous disease
Primary lung tumours 3% in males, 1% in breeding females and zero in virgin
females; lymphatic leukaemia less than 1%. Mammary adenocarcinomas zero
in males, 90% in breeding females and 61% in virgin females in unfostered
substrain (Hoag, 1963
). A high proportion of the
mammary tumours are of the acinar type (1/7) (Tengbergen,
). Lung tumours 2-27% (Festing and
). Low gross tumour incidence in males (19/22) (Storer, 1966
Life-span of males short in conventional conditions (6/22 = 433 days)
but long in females (21/22 = 750 days) (Storer,
1966). Life-span in SPF fostered conditions also short in males (5/17
= 487 days) and long in females (13/17 = 686 days) (Festing and Blackmore, 1971).
Normal physiology and biochemistry
High serum ceruloplasmin levels (1/26 males, 2/27 females) (Meier and MacPike, 1968
). High plasma cholinesterase activity
in females (2/22) (males not measured) (Angel
et al., 1967
., 1967). Low liver tyrosine aminotransferase in fasted
mice (8/10) (Blake,1970
). Low cell turnover as
estimated by slow clearance of DNA-bound radioactivity (17/17) (Heiniger et al., 1972
., 1972). Low venous (10/10) and arterial
(8/10) blood pH (Bernstein, 1966
Low brain weight (15/18 males, 18/18 females) (Storer,
). High erythrocyte count (1/18), low mean corpuscular volume
(17/18) (Russell et al., 1951
Large number of Peyer's patches (1/7) (Hummel
et al., 1966
Resistant to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 9/22) (Thomas
et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant to induction of subcutaneous tumours
by 3-methylcholanthrene (14/14) (Kouri et al.,
., 1973), (12/12) (Whitmire et al.,
Sensitive to X-irradiation (21/27) (Roderick,
1963). Males have a long sleeping time under hexobarbital (15/15)
(Lovell, 1976), long sleeping time under pentobarbitone anaesthetic (23/23),
Lovell (1986). Insensitive (eosinophil response)
to cortisone acetate (cf. 3/6) (Wragg and Speirs,
1952). Sensitive to teratogenic effect (cleft palate) by cortisone
acetate (2/6) (Kalter 1981). Sensitive to seizures induced by nicotine
(19/19) (Marks et al 1989). Clonidene induces
a strong aggressive behavioural response (2/9) (Nikulina and Klimek, 1993).
Low lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin response (42/43) (Heiniger et al., 1975
., 1975). Poor immune response to
ovomucoid, but good response to ovalbumin (cf. 6/12) (Vaz et al
197 l). Good primary immune response to bovine serum albumin (2/6) (James and Milne, 1972
). Good primary immune
response to sheep erythrocytes (2/6 for haemagglutinin response at 3 x
, 3 x 108
and 3 x 109
1/6 for haemagglutinin response at 3 x 108
dose only) (Ghaffar and James, 1973
). Non-discriminator between `H'
and `L' sheep erythrocytes (cf. 6/18) (McCarthy
and Dutton, 1975
). Poor immune response to (Pro-Gly-Pro)n
(cf. 6/7) (Fuchs et al., 1974
High susceptibility to IgG1
-mediated (2/12) but low susceptibility
to IgE-mediated (10/12) passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (De Souza et al., 1974
., 1974). Good immune response to Salmonella
lipopolysaccharide (2/7) (Di Pauli,
). Erythrocytes have a high agglutinability (cf. 14/25) (Rubinstein et al., 1974
., 1974). Injection of heterologous
type II collagen induces arthritis (Courtenay
et al, 1980
Susceptible to Mycoplasma fermentens
(2/6) (Gabridge et al., 1972
., 1972). Resistant to Plasmodium
infection (8/8) (Most et al., 1966
1966). High mortality in a natural epizootic of ectromelia (2/8) (Briody,
). Rapid immunological expulsion of Trichinella spiralis
(Wakelin and Donachie 1980
(2/7) to the development of chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy in postacute
et al 1992
). Infection with larval Echinococcus multilocularis
by transportal injection of hyatid homogenate results in a multivesiculation
form of hyatid development (cf 4/9). Protoscoleces are well developed
(Nakaya et al, 1997
Poor breeding performance (20/22), colony output 0.77 young/female/week,
litter size 4.4 weaned (19/25) (Festing, 1976a).
Recommended host for the following transplantable tumours: anaplastic
carcinoma dbrB, mammary adenocarcinomas CaDl and T1703, melanoma S91 and
pleomorphic sarcoma S37 (which is not host-specific) (Kaliss, 1972).
An embryonic stem cell line has been developed by Roach et al (1995).
High incidence of spontaneous `deviants' (possible mutations) (4/21) (Schlager and Dickie, 1967).
For origins see DBA
Low alcohol preference (4/4) (Fuller, 1964b), (18/18) (Rodgers,
), (5/5) (McClearn, 1965
). High severity
of ethanol withdrawal symptoms compared with C57BL/6, possibly associated
with differences in neuroactive steriod sensitivity (Finn et al, 1997
). High shock-avoidance learning (2/9) (Bovet et al., 1966
., 1966), (1/9) (Bovet et al., 1969
., 1969). Low avoidance conditionability
(7/9) (Royce, 1972
). Long time of immobility
in a forced swimming test (3/9) (Nikulina
et al 1991
) Low shuttle-box avoidance (4/5), high wheel activity (Messeri et al., 1972
., 1972). Good long-term
memory compared with C3H/He (Bovet et al.,
., 1969). Slow extinction of learned conditioned avoidance response
(7/7) (Schlesinger and Wimer, 1967
Susceptible to audiogenic seizures (2/11) (Fuller
and Sjursen, 1967
). Long latency to attack crickets (6/7) (Butler,
). High rearing (1/7), low defaecation (6/7) in Y-maze (McClearn et al., 1970
., 1970). Low locomotor activity when
grouped (6/6) but not when single (3/6) (Davis
et al., 1967
., 1967). Low social dominance of males in competition
for females (6/6) (DeFries and McClearn,
). Low balsa-wood gnawing activity (4/16) Fawdington and Festing
(1980). Low preference for sweet tasting substances (saccharin, sucrose,
dulcin and acesulfame, averaged) (20/26) (Lush 1988
DBA/2 mice failed to react to a spatial change of objects in an open field,
and therefore resemble rats with dorsal lesions of the hippocampus. They
may represent a model of hippocampal dysfunction (Ammassari_Teule et al,
1995). Feed restriction for nine days causes a high incidence of stereotypic
cage cover climbing (contrast C57BL/6) (Cabib
and Bonaventira, 1997).
Life-span and spontaneous disease
Primary lung tumours l% in males, 2% in females. Lymphatic leukaemia zero
in males, 2% in females and 3% in virgin females. Mammary adenocarcinomas
in unfostered substrains l% in males, 72% in breeding females and 48%
in virgin females (Hoag, 1963
). A high proportion
of mammary tumours are of the acinar type (1/7) (Tengbergen,
). Overall tumour incidence 15% in males, 49% in females, including
lymphomas 10% in males and 12% in females; mammary tumours zero in males
and 31% in virgin females (Smith et al., 1973
1973). Leukaemia 3% (Myers et al., 1970
Long life-span in SPF fostered conditions (12/17 = 629 days in males,
15/17 = 719 days in females) with 6-35% liver and 1-23% lung tumours (Festing and Blackmore, 1971). Long life-span
in conventional conditions (21/22 = 707 days in males, 20/22 = 714 days
in females) (Storer, 1966). Life-span 722_30
days in males and 683_26 days in females (Goodrick,
High incidence of expression of RNA tumour virus group-specific antigen
(2/5) (Diwan et al., 1973., 1973). Type
B reticulum cell neoplasms 18% at about 20 weeks (Dunn
and Deringer, 1968).
Spontaneous calcified heart lesions progress with age. 90% of individuals
affected by 1 year (Rings and Wagner, 1971).
Incidence of calcareous heart lesions high (1/5) among some related strains
(Di Paola et al., 1964., 1964). Dystrophic
cardiac calcification may be related to disturbed myocyte calcium metabolism
(Brunnert, 1997). Chronic hypertropic gastritis,
duodenal polyps and calcareous pericarditis frequently observed. Other
lesions include malignant lymphoma and degenerative processes in the myocardium,
skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, cornea and blood vessels.
Lesions partly depend on diet (Hare and Stewart,
Carry three separate recessive genes similar to those found separately
in C57BL/6J, BALB/cBy and WB/ReJ, causing age-related hearing loss (Willott et al, 1995).
Normal physiology and biochemistry
High metabolic rate (1/18) (Storer, 1967
metabolic rate at 26C (1/6) (Pennycuik, 1967
High cell turnover as estimated by rapid clearance of DNA-bound radioactivity
(4/17) (Heiniger et al., 1972
High proportion of paradoxical (REM) sleep (2/9) (Pagel
et al., 1973
High concentration of epinephrine and norepinephrine in adrenals (1/5)
(Ciranello et al., 1972., 1972). Low
Na/K ratio in erythrocytes (9/9) but high ratio in plasma (1/9) (Waymouth,
1973). Arterial blood has a high pH (2/10) (Bernstein,
1966). Low concentration of prostaglandin F in epididymis (5/6) (Badr, 1975). High plasma cholinesterase (5/22 in
females, 8/22 in males) (Angel et al., 1967.,
1967). Low liver tyrosine aminotransferase activity in fasted mice (9/10)
(Blake, 1970). High calcium uptake by the heart
(1/5) (Mokler and Iturrian, 1973). High
sensitivity to thyrotropin (3/21) (Levy et al.,
1965., 1965). High coumarin hydroxylating ability (cf. 4/13) (Lush and Arnold, 1975). High coumarin hydroxylase activity
(1/8) in both sexes (Van Iersel et al, 1994).
Low N'-methylnicotinamide oxidase activity in both sexes (7/7) (Huff and Chaykin, 1967). High serum haptoglobin level (1/11)
(Peacock et al., 1967., 1967). Low hepatic
benz (alpha) pyrene hydroxylase activity (6/6) (Kodama
and Bock, 1970). High hepatic delta-aminolaevulinate dehydratase activity
(2/8) (Doyle and Schimke, 1969). Low aldehyde
and alcohol dehydrogenase activity compared with C57BL/6 (Sheppard et al., 1968., 1968). High hepatic delta-aminolaevulinic
acid synthetase activity after DISC treatment (2/15) (Gross and Hutton, 1971). High hepatic urokinase activity
(1/6) (Hanford et al., 1974., 1974).
High basal level of growth hormone at 78 days (1/6) and low basal level
of serum prolactin (6/6) (Sinha et al., 1975.,
1975). High brain L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (2/7), choline
acetyltransferase (2/7) and acetylcholinesterase (1/7) activity (Tunnicliff et al., 1973., 1973). Low brain sulphatide (5/5)
and plasmalogen (5/5) and high brain sterol (1/5) (Sampugna et al., 1975., 1975). Low brain cholinesterase
(5/5) (Pryor et al., 1966., 1966). Resistant
to the development of atherosclerosis on a semi-synthetic high fat diet
(cf 5/9) (Nishina et al, 1993). Hyporesponsive
to diets containing high levels of fat and cholesterol (9/9) (Kirk et al, 1995). Mild hypercapnia with hypoxia significantly
elevated minute ventilation rate (1/8) (Tankersley
et al, 1994).
Large testes weight (2/8) (Shire and Bartke,
). Low brain weight (18/18 in males, 15/18 in females) (Storer,
). Low brain weight (25/25) (Roderick
et al., 1973
., 1973). Low brain weight (6/6) (Wahlsten et al., 1975
., 1975). High total leukocyte count
(6/18), high erythrocyte count (3/18), low haematocrit (15/18), low mean
corpuscular volume (18/18) and low haemoglobin (16/18 or 15/18, depending
on substrain) (Russell et al., 1951
Small forebrain (9/9), neocortex (9/9) and hippocampus volume (8/9) (Wimer et al., 1969., 1969). Cerebellum has
an intraculminate fissure between vermian lobule IV and vermian lobule
V (the ventral and dorsal lobules of the culmen) (contrast SJL, C57BL/10
and BALB/c) (Cooper et al 1991). Large
heart/body weight (1/5) (Mokler and Iturrian,
1973). High proportion of acidophilic (1/5) and low proportion of
chromophobe (5/5) cells in adenohypophysis of DBA/Sy substrain (Keramidas and Symeonidis, 1973). High number of haematopoetic
stem cells in bone marrow (contrast C57BL/6) (Muller-Sieburg and Riblet,
1996). High level of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange (3/4) (Nishi et al, 1993).
Hematopoetic stem-cell pool 11-fold higher than in C57BL/6. This is largely
due to loci on chromosome 1 (Mullersieburg and Riblet, 1996).
Resistant to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 9/22) (Thomas
et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant to induction of subcutaneous tumours
by 3-methylcholanthrene (12/14) (Kouri et al.,
., 1973), (11/12) (Whitmire et al.,
., 1971). Resistant to induction of adenocarcinomas of the colon
by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (cf. 2/4) (Evans et
Resistant to teratogenic effect of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (4/5) (Diwan,
1974). Phenobarbital i.p. does not induce hepatic epoxide hydrase
(cf. 3/7) (Oesch et al., 1973., 1973).
Resistant to lethal effects of ozone (21/22) (Goldstein
et al., 1973., 1973). Susceptible to induction of cleft palate by
cortisone (2/5) (Kalter, 1965). Good ovulatory
response to 3 I.U. of PMS but zero response to 7 I.v. (Zarrow et al., 1971., 1971). Low incidence of convulsions
induced by flurothyl (5/5) (Davis and King,
1967). Long hexobarbital sleeping time (8/9) and low liver hexobarbital
oxidase level (2/9) (Vesell, 1968). Sensitive
to chloroform toxicity (cf. 4/9) (Hill et al.,
1975; Deringer et al., 1953 al.,
1953). Sensitive to seizures induced by nicotine (1/19) (Marks et al 1989). Sensitivity may be related to brain
alpha-bungarotoxin binding, which is significantly higher in ST/b than
in sensitive DBA/2 mice (Marks et al, 1996).
High self-selection of nicotine (2/6) which is inversely correlated with
sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures (Robinson
et al, 1996).
High bronchial reactivity (2/6) to methacholine and serotonin (Konno et al 1993). Resistant (7/8) to daunomycin-induced
nephorsis (Kimura et al 1993). High (1/10)
neural sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol convulsions (Kosobud et al 1992). Sensitive (1/3) to neurotoxic effects
of monocrotophos (Rao et al 1991). Low histamine
release from peritoneal mast cells induced by compound 48/80, a calcium
dependent histamine releaser ( c.f. 5/8) (Toda
et al 1989). High histamine release from peritoneal mast cells induced
by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 ( c.f. 7/8, contrast C57BL/6) (Toda et al 1989). Carries gene (Tpmt) for high
levels of thiopurine methyltransferase activity, catalyzing the S-methylation
of 6-mercaptopurine and other heterocyclic and aromaticthiol compounds
(unlike C57BL/6 and AKR) (Otterness and
Weinshilboum 1987a,b). Resistant (contrast 5 strains) to the induction
of micronuclei by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, presumably due to
uninducible Ah locus (Sato et al, 1987).
Iron overload does not cause inhibition of hepatic uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase
and uroporphyria in contrast with C57BL/10ScSn . This was not correlated
with the Ah locus in a study involving 12 mouse strains (Smith and Francis, 1993). Resistant to hepatotoxic effects
of cadmium (Shaikh et al, 1993). Low voluntary
comsumption of morphine in two-bottle choice situation (13/15) (Belknap et al, 1993). Less susceptible to the development
of micronuclei than BALB/c following treatment with clastogenic base analogues
and nucleosides (Sato et al, 1993). Unique
poor responsiveness to the antinociceptive effects of nitrous oxide, a
polygenic trait (Quock et al, 1996). Nine-fold
lower ED50 for haloperidol-induced catalepsy than C57BL/6, but this is
not associated with numbers of cholinergic neurons (Dains et al, 1996).
Airways hyperreactive to acetylcholine (c.f. 3/7) (Zhang et al, 1995). Resistant (1/4) to rate-depressant effects
of ethanol on schedule-controlled behaviour (Elmer
and George, 1995). A diet containing 15% dairy fat, 1% cholesterol
and 0.5% cholic acid did not cause a high incidence of cholesterol gallstones
(like AKR, SM contrast C57L, SWR, A) (Faulkner
et al, 1995)
Resistant to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (cf. 7/18) (Levine and Sowinski, 1973
). Low lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin
response (43/43) (Heiniger et al., 1975
1975). Serum antinuclear factor 26% incidence (3/17) (Barnes and Tuffrey, 1967
). Poor immune response to type
III pneumococcal polysaccharide (5/5) (Braley
and Freeman, 1971
). Good immune response to synthetic double-stranded
RNA (2/7) (Steinberg et al., 1971
1971). Poor immune response to cholera A and B antigens (8/9 B, 6/8A)
(Cerny et al
., 197 l). Poor immune response to both ovomucoid
and ovalbumin (cf. 2/12) (Vaz et al., 1971
1971). Precipitating and skin-sensitising antibodies have fast electrophoretic
mobility (2/6) (Fahey, 1965
between `H' and `L' sheep erythrocytes (cf. 6/18) (McCarthy and Dutton, 1975
). Low anti-DNP antibody concentration
(7/7) (Paul et al., 1970
., 1970). Poor immune
response to Pro-Gly-Pro-ovalbumin (6/7) and (Pro-Gly-Pro)n
but good immune response to (Pro66
(1/7) (Fuchs et of.,
1974). High susceptibility to IgG1
(1/12) but low susceptibility to IgE-mediated (11/12) passive cutaneous
anaphylaxis (De Souza et al., 1974
Develops a lethal form of syngeneic graft-vs-host disease when treated
with cyclosporine (unlike 5 other strains) (Prud'homme
et al 1991
). Erythrocytes have a high agglutinability (cf. 14/25)
(Rubinstein et al., 1974
Poor immune response to Salmonella strasbourg
(5/7 to 7/7, depending on substrain) (Di Pauli, 1972
Low PHA-stimulated lymphocyte blastogenic response (5/6) (Hellman and Fowler, 1972
). Low immune response to ferritin
(12/16) (Young et al., 1976
., 1976). Resistant
to induction of anaphylactic shock by ovalbumin (cf. 6/13) (Tanioka and Esaki, 1971
). Resistant (11/12) to experimental
autoimmune orchitis induced by two or three sc injections with viable
syngeneic testicular germ cells without any adjuvants (Tokunaga et al 1993
). Anti-BPO IgE monoclonal antibody
failed to produce potent systemic sensitization sufficient for provocation
of lethal shock in most aged (6 to 10 months) mice (c.f. 5/8) (Harada et al 1991
). High expression of neutral glycosphingolipid
GgOse(4)Cer in concanavalin A stimulated T lymphoblasts (cf 3/6) (Muthing,
Resistant to infection by Salmonella typhimurium
strain C5 (4/7)
(Plant and Glynn, 1974
). Susceptible to
liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus
). Susceptible to natural intestinal helminth infection (9/10)
). Develops a chronic non-healing
lesion on infection with Leishmania tropica,
the parasite causing
cutaneous leishmaniasis (Howard et al 1980
Susceptible (7/7) to the induction of dental caries due to infection with
et al 1991
). Susceptible (3/7) to the development of chronic Chagas'
cardiomyopathy in postacute Trypanosoma cruzi
infection (Rowland et al 1992
). Infection with larval Echinococcus
by transportal injection of hyatid homogenate results
in well developed protoscoleces (cf 4/9) (Nakaya
et al, 1997
). Highly susceptible to infection with Pseudomonas
with rapid accumulation of bacterial burden and high mortailty,
in contrast with resistant BALB/c mice (Morissette
et al, 1995
). Susceptibility is associated with a delay in inflamatory
response and the initiation of bacterial clearance (Morisette et al, 1996).
Susceptible (2/4) to
disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans
(Irokanulo et al, 1995
). Highly susceptible
to infection with Candida albicans
(2/6) (Ashman et al,1996
). Resistant, with low amylase response to
the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
(cf 6/12) (Xidieh et al, 1994
). Highly susceptible (1/17), with high
mortality following infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis
(Cartner et al, 1996
). Susceptibile to infection by Helicobacter
with moderate to severe chronic active gastritis in the body
of the stomach, which increased over time (cf 4/6) (Sakagami et al, 1996
Low susceptibility to BALB/Tennant leukaemia virus (10/12) (Tennant,
1965). Hyperglycaemia can be induced by encephalomyocarditis virus
(cf. 2/6), which also causes diabetes mellitus (cf. 7/14) (Boucher and Notkins, 1973;
Boucher et al., 1975., 1975). High susceptibility to develop leukaemia
on infection with Friend virus (cf. 5/Il) (Dietz
and Rick, 1972). Mouse mammary tumor proviral loci have been identified
by Lee and Eicher (1990).
Poor breeding performance (18/25). Colony output 0.85 young/female/week.
Low litter size at weaning of 4.7 (17/26) (Festing, 1976a). Poor breeding
performance (8/8). Litter size 4.2_0.3, sterility 31% (Nagasawa et al., 1973
., 1973). Intermediate breeding performance
(13/24) (Hansen et al., 1973
Corpora lutea may persist over many cycles, becoming hyalinised and calcified
(Chai and Dickie, 1966
). Has shorter and
less regular oestrus cycles than C57BL/6J (Nelson
et al 1992
). Susceptible to foetal resorption resulting from restraint-induced
stress when mated to C3H/HeJ males, in contrast with CBA/J and A/J. This
was reduced by alloimmunization with C3H cells (McMaster et al 1993).
Recommended host for the following transplantable tumours: fibrosarcoma
SaD2, lymphatic leukaemia P1534 and mammary adenocarcinoma CaD2 (Kaliss,
1972). Hybrids involving DBA/2 are recommended host for transplantable
leukaemia L1210, melanoma S91 and MOPC myeloma used as models in screening
potential anticancer drugs (E.O.R.T.C. Screening Group, 1972).
The Fv2r allele appears to be lethal
on the DBA/2 genetic background (Blank and
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