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Inbred Strains of Mice: C58


Inbr: F166 +. Black. Genet: a. Strain developed by MacDowell in 1921 from litter mates 58 and 52 of Miss Lathrop's stock (see also C57BL). A mating of the same male but a different female gave rise to the C57 group of strains. Used largely as a high-leukaemia strain, the genetics of which has been reviewed by Lilly and Pincus (1973).


High avoidance conditionability (3/9) (Royce, 1972). Good T-maze learning (2/6) (Stasik, 1970). High alcohol preference (5/18) (Rodgers, 1966).

Life-span and spontaneous disease

Life-span short (2/22), 373 days in males and 351 days in females in conventional conditions (Storer, 1966). High incidence of leukaemia (Heston, 1963). High gross tumour incidence (2/22) (Storer, 1966). Leukaemia 97% (Myers et al., 1970., 1970).

Normal physiology and biochemistry

Low serum ceruloplasmin levels in females (25/27), but intermediate in males (Meier and MacPike, 1968). Low systolic blood pressure (14/19) (Schlager and Weibust, 1967). Low sensitivity to thyrotropin (17/21) (Levy et al., 1965., 1965). High serum haptoglobin level (3/11) (Peacock et al., 1967., 1967). Harderian gland has a low porphyrin content (13/16) (Margolis, 1971).


Small brain/body weight (18/20). Small brain weight (Roderick et al., 1973., 1973). Low number of granule cells in right area dentata of brain (5/5) (Wimer and Wimer 1982). A significant number of acinar cells of the pancreas are multinucleated (cf. AKR), in contrast to seven other strains (Pollard, 1973). Accessory spleens in about 21% of mice. One or both kidneys reduced or missing in 10-12% of individuals. Polyovular follicles common (Hummel et al., 1966., 1966).


Susceptible to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 13/22) (Thomas et al., 1973., 1973). Susceptible to induction of subcutaneous tumours by 3-methylcholanthrene (5/14) (Kouri et al., 1973., 1973). Resistant to X-irradiation (6/27) (Roderick, 1963). Resistant to hyperbaric oxygen (17/18) (Hill et al., 1968., 1968). High incidence of virus-like particles in chemically induced sarcomas (1/6) but low susceptibility to 3,4-benzpyrene (5/6) (Liebelt et al., 1970., 1970). Susceptible to toxic effects of isoniazid (8/10) (Taylor, 1976b). High ED50 to behavioural effects of nicotine (18/19). Sensitive to seizures induced by nicotine (17/19) (Marks et al 1989)


Discriminator between `H' and `L' sheep erythrocytes (cf. 12/18) (McCarthy and Dutton, 1975). Develop immune polioencephalomyelitis, a paralytic central nervous system syndrome characterised by mononuclear cellular infiltration of the spinal cord and brain stem when aged mice are immunised with formalin-inactivated line Ib malignant lymphocytes (Sager et al., 1973., 1973). Erythrocytes have low agglutinability (cf. 11/25) (Rubinstein et al., 1974., 1974). High responder to dextran (cf. 4/10) (Blomberg et al., 1972., 1972).


Resistant to Mycoplasma fermentens (5/6) (Gabridge et al., 1972., 1972). Resistant to Plasmodium berghei infection (7/8) (Most et al., 1966., 1966). Encephalomyocarditis virus causes diabetes mellitus (cf. 7/14) (Boucher et al., 1975., 1975). Develop paralysis (age-dependent polyomyelitis) following infection with the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in common with other mouse strains (e.g. AKR) which possess N-tropic ecotropic murine leukemia proviruses and are homozygous Fv1n (Anderson et al, 1995).


Poor breeding performance (22/24) (Hansen et al., 1973., 1973).

Anderson G. W., Palmer G. A., Rowland R. R. R., Even C., and Plagemann P. G. W. (1995) Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J mice predisposes mice to paralytic infection by lactate dehydrogenase- elevating virus. Journal of Virology 69, 308-319.

Blomberg B., Geckeler W. R., and Weigert M. (1972) Genetics of the antibody response to Dextran in mice. Science 177, 178-180.

Boucher D. W., Hayashi K., Rosenthal J., and Notkins A. L. (1975) Virus-induced diabetes mellitus. III. Influence of sex and strain of host. J. Infect. Dis. 131, 462-466.

Gabridge M. G., Abrams G. D., and Murphy W. H. (1972) Lethal toxicity of Mycoplasma fermentens in mice. J. Infect. Dis. 125, 153-160.

Hansen C. T., Judge F. J., and Whitney R. A. (1973) Catalog of NIH rodents. National Institutes of Health. DHEW publication (NIH) 74-606, Bethesda.

Heston W. E. (1963) Genetics of neoplasia, in Methodology in mammalian genetics (Burdette W. J., ed), pp. 247-268. Holden-Day, San Francisco.

Hill G. B., Osterhout S., and O'Fallon W. M. (1968) Variation in response to hyperbaric oxygen among inbred strains of mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 129, 687-689.

Hummel K. P., Richardson F. L., and Fekete E. (1966) Anatomy, in Biology of the Laboratory Mouse, 2nd. ed. (Green E. L., ed), pp. 247-307. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Kouri R. E., Salerno R. A., and Whitmire C. E. (1973) Relationships between arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility and sensitivity to chemically induced subcutaneous sarcomas in various strains of mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 50, 363-368.

Levy R. P., McGuire W. L., Shaw R. K., and Bartsch G. E. (1965) Effect of species differences of mice on the bioassay of thyrotropin. Endocrinol. 76, 890-894.

Liebelt R. A., Suzuki S., Liebelt A. G., and Lane M. (1970) Virus-like particles in chemically induced sarcomas in high- and low-leukemia strains of mice. Cancer Res. 30, 2438-2448.

Lilly F. and Pincus T. (1973) Genetic control of murine viral leukemogenesis. Adv. Cancer Res. 17, 231-277.

Margolis F. L. (1971) Regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis in the Harderian gland of inbred mouse strains. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 145, 373-381.

Marks M. J., Stitzel J. A., and Collins A. C. (1989) Genetic influences on nicotine responses. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 33, 667-678.

McCarthy M. M. and Dutton R. W. (1975) The humoral response of mouse spleen cells to two types of sheep erythrocytes. J. Immunol. 115, 1316-1321.

Meier H. and MacPike A. D. (1968) Levels and heritability of serum ceruloplasmin activity in inbred strains of mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 128, 1185-1190.

Most H., Nussenzweig R. S., Vanderberg J., Herman R., and Yoeli M. (1966) Susceptibility of genetically standardized (JAX) mouse strains to sporozoite and blood-induced Plasmodium berghei infections. Mil. Med. 131, 915-918.

Myers D. D., Meier H., and Huebner R. J. (1970) Prevalence of murine C-type RNA virus group specific antigen in inbred strains of mice. Life Sci. 9, 1071-1080.

Peacock A. C., Gelderman A. H., Ragland R. H., and Hoffman H. A. (1967) Haptoglobin levels in serum of various strains of mice. Science 158, 1703-1704.

Pollard M. (1973) Multinucleated acinar cells in the pancreases of AKR and C58 mice. Experientia 29, 596-597.

Roderick T. H., Wimer R. E., Wimer C. C., and Schwartzkroin P. A. (1973) Genetic and phenotypic variation in weight of brain and spinal cord between inbred strains of mice. Brain Res. 64, 345-353.

Roderick T. H. (1963) The response of twenty-seven inbred strains of mice to daily doses of whole-body X-irradiation. Radiation Res. 20, 631-639.

Rodgers D. A. (1966) Factors underlying differences in alcohol preference among inbred strains of mice. Psychosomat. Med. 28, 498-513.

Royce J. R. (1972) Avoidance conditioning in nine strains of inbred mice using optimal stimulus parameters. Behav. Genet. 2, 107-110.

Rubinstein P., Liu N., Strenn E. W., and Decary F. (1974) Electrophoretic mobility and agglutinability of red blood cells: a `new' polymorphism in mice. J. Exp. Med. 139, 313-322.

Sager M. A., Lawton J. W. M., and Murphy W. H. (1973) Serum transmissibility of immune polioencephalomyelitis in C58 mice. J. Immunol. 110, 219-226.

Schlager G. and Dickie M. M. (1967) Spontaneous mutations and mutation rates in the house mouse. Genetics 57, 319-330.

Stasik J. H. (1970) Inheritance of T-maze learning in mice. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 71, 251-257.

Storer J. B. (1966) Longevity and gross pathology at death in 22 inbred strains of mice. J. Gerontol. 21, 404-409.

Thomas P. E., Hutton J. J., and Taylor B. A. (1973) Genetic relationship between aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility and chemical carcinogen induced skin ulceration in mice. Genetics 74, 655-659.

Wimer R. E. and Wimer C. C. (1982) A geneticists map of the mouse brain, in Genetics of the brain (Lieblich I., ed), pp. 395-420. Elsevier, Oxford.

Updated 9 Apr. 1998
Michael FW Festing
MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,
University of Leicester, UK

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