of Mice: 129
Inbr and colour depends on substrain (see below). Origin: Dunn 1928 from
crosses of coat colour stocks from English fanciers and a chinchilla stock
from Castle. This strain has a common origin with strain 101. Most substrains
carry the white-bellied agouti gene AW
though only a subset
have the agouti pattern as many carry albino or chinchilla and/or the
pink-eyed dilution gene, p
, which is derived from Asian mice
of the Mus musculus
type (see also strains SJL, P/J and FS/Ei)
(Brilliant et al, 1994
It is known for the high incidence of spontaneous testicular teratomas,
though the incidence differs between substrains, but more recently it
has been the most widely used strain in the production of targeted mutations
due to the availability of several lines of embryonic stem cells. Two
recent studies show that there is major genetic variation within the 129
"family", at least some of which must be attributed to genetic contamination
(Threadgill et al, 1997,Simpson et al, 1997). Strain 129/SvJ was genetically contaminated
in about 1978 by an unknown strain, and differs from other 129 substrains
at about 25% of SSLP genetic markers. Threadgill et al suggest that it
is equivalent to a recombinant congenic strain and suggest that it is
designated 129cX/Sv. Simpson et al recognised three major groups of substrains:
parental substrains, steel substrains and "ter" substrains. Threadgill
et al identified substrains 129/Ola, 129/J, 129/Sv, 129/ReJ and 129/RrRk,
and the associated embryonic stem cells.
Studies of 129 genealogy and genetics have resulted in major nomenclature
changes for 129 substrains. See
Mouse Strain 129 Substrain Nomenclature.
Inbr (J) 89. Pale yellow: Aw,cch,p.
Non-dystrophic substrain of 129/Re-dy.
Maint. by Ola.
Inbr (J) 97. Pale yellow, or albino. Aw,
Jackson Laboratory 1948. Maint. by J.
Inbr (Sv) N8 F49. Agouti with light belly: Aw,
Also carries a gene ter
causing a high incidence of testicular
teratomas. Origin: A substrain to determine the effect of the W
on incidence of testicular teratomas. The W
gene was backcrossed
repeatedly to 129, and at generation N8 a female produced 38 male offspring
of which 8 had testicular teratomas. All subsequent members derived from
that mating. The W
gene has been eliminated. Incidence of testicular
teratomas now 30% (Stevens, 1973
). Maint. by
Low avoidance conditionability (8/9) (Royce, 1972
Low shock-avoidance learning (6/6 in males, 5/6 in females) (Royce et al., 1971
., 1971). Low preference for sweet tasting
substances (saccharin, sucrose, dulcin and acesulfame, averaged, Sv substrain)
(25/26) (Lush 1988
). Prefers moderate concentrations
of saline (contrast C57BL/6) (Beauchamp
and Fisher, 1993, Gannon and Contreras,
Life-span and spontaneous disease
Long life-span in conventional conditions (18/22 = 679 days in males, 15/22
= 648 days in females) (Storer, 1966). Long
life-span in SPF fostered conditions (16/17 = 699 days in males, 11/1
7 = 666 days in females) (Festing and Blackmore,
1971). Low overall tumour incidence (7% in males, 21% in females),
including lymphoma 2% in males and 7% in females, soft tissue sarcomas
2% in males and 1% in females and benign tumours 2% in males and 3% in
females (Smith et al., 1973., 1973). Lung
tumours 4-46% (Festing and Blackmore, 1971).
Testicular teratomas about 1% in most substrains, but 30% in the terSv
substrain (Stevens, 1973). Incidence of teratomas
increased in p53-deficient mice (Harvey et
al, 1993). The Ter gene has been mapped to chromosome 18 (Asada et al, 1994). Congenital malformations about 4% in
RrSvKt-jt substrain (Kalter, 1968).
High incidence of urinary calculi (Russell
and Meier, 1966).
Normal physiology and biochemistry
High plasma cholesterol at 12 and 24 weeks (2/8) (Weibust,
1973). Low plasma triglyceride levels (2/11) (Jiao
et al 1990). High Na/K ratio in erythrocytes (1/9) and plasma (4/9)
(Waymouth, 1973). High serum ceruloplasmin
levels in males (3/26) but low levels in females (24/27) (Meier and MacPike, 1968). High plasma cholinesterase activity
(3/22 in males, 8/22 in females) (Angel et
al., 1967., 1967). Low mean heart rate (7/7) but high mean heart adaptation
rate (2/7) (Blizard and Welty, 1971).
High cell turnover in J substrain as estimated by rapid clearance of DNA-bound
radioactivity (3/17) (Heiniger et al., 1972.,
1972). Venous blood has a high pH (1/10) (Bernstein,
1966). High hepatic microsomal coumarin hydroxylase activity in females
(2/8) (Van Iersel et al, 1994). High levels
of apoA-IV messenger RNA in liver compared with C57BL/6 (Reue et al, 1993).
Has defective secretory group II phospholipase A2 gene (cf strains C57BL/6
and B10.RIII) (Kennedy et al, 1995).
Large brain/body weight ratio (3/20) (Roderick
et al., 1973
., 1973). Small spinal cord (21/25) (Roderick et al., 1973
., 1973). Small forebrain volume (8/9)
and neocortex (8/9) (Wimer et al., 1969
1969). A large proportion of 129/Ola mice have major shunts between the
hepatic portal system and the vena cava, allowing the passage of microspheres
up to 50m in diameter.. These shunts are associated with resistance to
and Wilson 1989
). High retinal ganglion cell number (19/24) in /J
substrain (Williams et al, 1996
of corpus callosum in about 70% of mice of the 129/J substrain. This may
be related to retarded formation of the hippocampal commissure in this
strain and in BALB/c mice (Livy and Wahlsten,
). High bone density of femur in J substrain (3/11) (Beamer et al, 1996
Resistant to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 9/22) (Thomas
et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant to induction of subcutaneous tumours
by 3-methylcholanthrene (10/14) (Kouri et al.,
., 1973). Resistant to X-irradiation (1/27) (Roderick,
), (1/10) (Storer, 1966
). Females have
long sleeping time under hexobarbital anaesthetic (14/15) (Lovell, 1976).
Resistant to toxic effects of isoniazid (3/10) (Taylor, 1976b). Insensitive
(eosinophil response) to cortisone acetate (cf. 3/6) (Wragg and Speirs, 1952
). Sensitive uterine response to
oestrogens (1/5) (Chai and Dickie, 1966
Drasher, 1955). Susceptible (cf 5/8) to ozone-induced decreases of tracheal
potential (Takahashi et al, 1995
High lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin response (12/43) (Heiniger et al., 1975
., 1975). Responder to synthetic polypeptide
) (cf. 3/7) (Pinchuck and Maurer, 1965
). Erythrocytes have a high agglutin
ability (cf. 14/25) (Rubinstein et al.,
., 1974). High responder to Dextran (cf. 4/10) (Blomberg et al., 1972
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erythematosus including severe ocular changes and blepharitis can be induced
by injection of human monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies (Chan et al, 1995
Carries no detectable endogenous ecotropic MuLV DNA sequences (Jenkins et al 1982
Poor breeding performance (19/22), colony output 0.8 young/female/wk, litter
size at weaning 4.5 (19/22) (Festing, 1976a).
Recommended host for transplantable tumour haemangioendothelioma BW6473
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INBRED STRAINS OF MICE
Updated 9 Apr. 1998
MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,
University of Leicester,