of Mice: AKR
. Origin: a dealer named Detwiler in Norristown PA.
Carried by Furth as a high-leukaemia strain from 1928 to 1936, then random
bred at the Rockefeller Inst. for several generations. b x s by Mrs. Rhoades
to F9 then C.Lynch to F21. This strain is best known for it's high incidence
of lymphatic leukaemia, and for the Thy1a
T-cell antigen, which is only present in this and a few other strains.
Early history is obscure, but Acton et al
) found substantial substrain differences, which can best
be accounted for by genetic contamination. This could have occurred at
the time the strain was maintained by random mating. The strain has an
international distribution, ranks about eighth in frequency of use and
is widely used in cancer research for its high leukaemia incidence (Lilly and Pincus, 1973
) and in immunology
as a source of the Thy1.1 (theta AKR) antigen, although this varies between
substrains. Mice of this strain are viraemic from birth and express in
all tissues the ecotropic retrovirus AKV, copies of which are intrgrated
into the genome and which is associated with the development of the leukaemia.
In some substrains additional copies of the viral genomes may be integrated
(Herr and Gilbert 1982
Major substrains include:
Inbr ?. To Jackson Laboratory 1940. Maintained by J.
Inbr ?. To Law 1940, to N 1956 at F53. Maint. by N.
Genetically contaminated and renamed ACR/A. Maint. by A.
Inbr ?. Origin ?. Differs from other substrains in being Mod1a
Oak Ridge, to ?, to Rudale, to Netherlands Cancer Institute 1953. Carries
and appears similar to AKR/J.
Carries an autosomal translocation and has a low fertility (Leonard and DeKnudt, 1967
High intrastrain aggression (2/14) (Southwick
and Clark, 1966
). High food drive (2/15), low emotionality (13/15)
). Long time of immobility
in a forced swimming test (2/9) (Nikulina
et al 1991
) Susceptible to audiogenic seizures (3/11) (Fuller and Sjursen, 1967
). High open-field activity (2/13)
). Low shock avoidance learning
in females (5/6) (Royce et al., 1971
1971). Low preference for sweet tasting substances (saccharin, sucrose,
dulcin and acesulfame, averaged) (24/26) (Lush 1988
Life-span and spontaneous disease
Life-span short (1/22 = 326 days in males, 276 days in females) in conventional
conditions (Storer, 1966
). Life-span short (1/17
= 350 days in males, 312 days in females) in fostered SPF conditions (Festing and Blackmore, 1971
Lymphatic leukaemia 57% in males, 65% in females and 4% in virgin females.
Mammary adenocarcinomas and primary lung tumours less than 1% (Hoag,
1963). Lymphatic leukaemia 66-87% (Festing
and Blackmore, 1971). High gross tumour incidence (1/22) (Storer,
1966). Leukaemia 80-90% in females and 70-80% in males by 18 months
(Nemirovsky and Trainin, 1973). Leukaemia
88% (Myers et al., 1970., 1970). Incidence
of leukaemia not altered by treatment with recombinant human growth hormone
(Bechensteen et al, 1993). Low incidence
of leukemia (about 7% T-cell and 28% B-cell) in the AKR-Fv1b
congenic strain with limited replication and spread of the N-tropic
murine leukemia virus (Rosner et al, 1993, Haran-Ghera et al, 1993).
Normal physiology and biochemistry
Low metabolic rate (18/18) (Storer, 1967
concentration of prostaglandin F in epididymis (2/6) (Badr,
). Low plasma cholinesterase activity (22/22) (Angel et al., 1967
., 1967). Low plasma cholesterol levels
(1/11) (Jiao et al 1990
). High N'
oxidase activity in both sexes (2/7) (Huff and
). Low serum haptoglobin levels (11/11) (Peacock et al., 1967
., 1967). High hepatic delta-aminolaevulinate
dehydratase activity (1/8) (Doyle and Schimke,
). Low serum calcium at 7 months (6/6) (Barrett
et al., 1975
., 1975). High porphyrin content in Harderian gland (1/16)
). Venous blood has a high
pH (1/10) (Bernstein, 1966
). Blood catalase
has a high specific activity (2/7) (Magdon, 1962
Resistant to the development of atherosclerosis on a semi-synthetic high
fat diet (cf 5/9) (Nishina et al, 1993
Sensitive to the development of obesity associated with adipocyte sensitivity
to insulin (contrast SWR/J) (Eberhart et
al, 1994, West et al, 1995
to diets containing high levels of fat and cholesterol (8/9) (Kirk et al, 1995
). Eat 30% more calories than SWR (resistant
to high-fat dietary obesity) with a higher fat and lower carbohydrate
intake (Smith et al, 1997
Low testes weight (8/8) (Shire and Bartke,
). Large brain weight in females (13/18) (Storer,
). High percent carcass lipid on a high-fat diet (9/9) (West et al 1992
). Large brain weight (3/25) (Roderick et al., 1973
., 1973). Low total leukocyte count
(14/18), high mean corpuscular volume (2/18) (Russell
et al., 1951
., 1951). Large relative thymus weight at 14 days (3/8),
49 days (1/8) and 90 days (1/8) (Albert et
., 1966). Large relative thymus weight (1/6) (Belyaev et al., 1970
., 1970). Low relative spleen weight
(9/9 to 7/9, depending on age) (Albert et
., 1966). A significant number of acinar cells of pancreas
contain up to twelve nuclei (contrast seven other strains, but cf. C58)
). Carries adrenocortical lipid
depletion gene which is characterised by loss of lipid vacuoles and occurrence
of many closely packed mitochondria in cytoplasm of cortical cells (Arnesen, 1963
). Low bone density of femur (8/11)
(Beamer et al, 1996
High susceptibility to transplacental tumour induction by 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea
(IfS) (Diwan et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant
to skin ulceration by DMBA (cf. 9/22) (Thomas
et al., 1973
., 1973). Resistant to toxic effects of DMBA (1/6) (Schmid et al., 1966
., 1966). Resistant to
teratogenic effects of 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (5/5) (Diwan et al., 1974
., 1974). Resistant to induction of tumours
by 3-methylcholanthrene (10/12) (Whitmire
et al., 1971
., 1971). Highly susceptible to the induction of tumours
by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) due to a gene on chromosome 7 (Angel et al, 1993
). Sensitive to lethal effects of ozone
(4/21) (Goldstein et al., 1973
but resistant (cf 3/8) to ozone-induced decreases of tracheal potential
(Takahashi et al, 1995
to X-irradiation (19/27) (Roderick, 1963
Resistant to pulmonary hyaline membrane formation in 90% oxygen (2/10)
(Lieberman and Kellog, 1967
incidence of virus-like particles in chemically induced sarcomas (2/6)
but low susceptibility to tumour induction by 3,4-benzpyrene (6/6) (Liebelt et al., 1970
., 1970). Short sleeping
time under hexobarbital anaesthetic (4/15) (Lovell, 1976), short sleeping
time under pentobarbitone anaesthetic (4/23), Lovell (1986
Resistant to colon carcinogenesis by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (cf. 4/7) (Evans et al., 1977
., 1977). Sensitive to seizures
induced by nicotine (17/19) (Marks et al 1989
Carries gene (Tpmt
) for low levels of thiopurine methyltransferase
activity, catalyzing the S
-methylation of 6-mercaptopurine and
other heterocyclic and aromaticthiol compounds (like C57BL/6, unlike DBA/2)
(Otterness and Weinshilboum 1987a
Airways hyperreactive to acetylcholine (c.f. 3/7) (Zhang et al, 1995
). A diet containing 15% dairy fat, 1% cholesterol
and 0.5% cholic acid did not cause a high incidence of cholesterol gallstones
(like SM, DBA/2 contrast C57L, SWR, A) (Faulkner
et al, 1995
Sensitive to amyloid induction (3/10) but low level of spontaneous amyloid
formation (Ram et al., 1969
., 1969). High
susceptibility to amyloid using Escherichia coli
(Willerson et al., 1969
., 1969). High
lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin response (11/43) (Heiniger et al., 1975
., 1975). Good immune response to small
doses of bovine gamma-globulin (cf. 4/8) (Levine
and Vaz, 1970
). Poor primary immune response to bacteriophage fd (6/7)
(Klsch et al., 1971
l., 1971). Poor
splenic PFC immune response to pneumococcal polysaccharide (8/9) (Amsbaugh et al. 1972
. 1972). Good immune response to ovomucoid,
but poor response to ovalbumin (cf. 5/12) (Vaz
et al., 1971
., 1971). Good immune response to DNP-keyhole limpet haemocyanin
(2/11) (Borel and Kilham, 1974
between `H' and `L' sheep RBC (cf. 12/18) (McCarthy
and Dutton, 1975
). High susceptibility to IgE-mediated passive cutaneous
anaphylaxis (1/12) (De Souza et al., 1974
1974). Susceptible to the anaphylactic death following an intravenous
injection of bovine serum albumin into primed mice (Lei
et al, 1996
Erythrocytes have a high agglutinability (cf. 14/25) (Rubinstein et al., 1974., 1974). High incidence of expression
of RNA tumour virus group specific antigen (1/5) (Diwan
et al., 1973., 1973). Low immune response to ferritin (14/16) (Young et al., 1976., 1976). Low immune response
to dextran (cf. 6/10) (Blomberg et al.,
1972., 1972). Low immune response to ganglio-series gangliosides (c.f.
4/10) Kawashima et al (1992). Resistant
to immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity by ultraviolet B light
(cf 4/18) (Noonan and Hoffman, 1994).
High expression of neutral glycosphingolipid GgOse(4)Cer in concanavalin
A stimulated T lymphoblasts (cf 3/6) (Muthing,
Resistant to infection by the obligate intracelluar parasite Besnotia
(1/8) (Lunde and Gelderman,
). Susceptible to a natural intestinal helminth infection (10/10)
). Susceptible to Herpes simplex
infection (11/11) (Lopez, 1975
). Low mortality
in a natural epizootic of ectromelia (8/8) (Briody,
). Resistant to induction of diabetes mellitus by encephalomyocarditis
virus (cf. 7/14) (Boucher et al., 1975
1975). Resistant (1/7) to the induction of dental caries due to infection
with Streptococcus mutans
et al 1991
). Susceptible to infection with murine herpes virus (1/4)
(Kapoor et al 1992
). Mouse mammary tumor
proviral loci have been identified by Lee and Eicher (1990
). Develop severe lesions (1/8) following infection with
(Ashman et al, 1993
Resistant (4/10) to infection with Ehrlichia risticii
(Williams and Timoney, 1994
). Resistant, with low amylase
response to the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
(Xidieh et al, 1994
). Infection with larval
by transportal injection of hyatid
homogenate results in well developed protoscoleces (cf 4/9) (Nakaya et al, 1997
). Develop paralysis (age-dependent polyomyelitis)
following infection with the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in
common with other mouse strains (e.g. C58) which possess N-tropic ecotropic
murine leukemia proviruses and are homozygous Fv-1n (Anderson et al, 1995
Poor reproductive performance (22/25), output 0.74 young/female/week,
litter size low (22/25) at 4.1 weaned (Festing, 1976a). Intermediate breeding
performance (14/24) (Hansen et al., 1973
1973). Low post-implantation loss of embryos (1/8), but high pre-implantation
losses (8/8) (Leonard et al., 1971
Recommended host for transplantable lymphatic leukaemia BW5147 (Kaliss,
1972). High spontaneous mutation rate (4/21) (Schlager
and Dickie, 1967
Set of 25 recombinant inbred strains. Origin: B.A. Taylor from a cross
between AKR/J and DBA/2J.
High incidence of lymphoma in most strains (Gilbert
et al, 1993).
Set of 18 recombinant inbred strains. Inbr 15-40+. Origin: B.A.Taylor
from a cross between AKR/J and C57L/J. Strain AKXL-7 has a recombinant
alpha-globin gene (Lewis et al, 1993).
Maint. by Ty.
T., Blankenhorn E. P., Douglas T. C., Owen R. D., Hilgers J., Hoffman
H. A., and Boyse C. A. (1973) Variations among sublines of inbred AKR
mice. Nature New Biol. 245, 8-10.
S., Wolf P. L., Loud A. V., Pryjma I., Potter R., and Moore W. (1966)
Spleen development in mice of high and low leukemic strains. J. Reticuloendothel.
Soc. 3, 176-201.
D. F., Hansen C. T., Prescott B., Stashak P. W., Barthold D. R., and Baker
P. J. (1972) Genetic control of the antibody response to type III pneumococcal
polysaccharide in mice. I. Evidence that an X-linked gene plays a decisive
role in determining responsiveness. J. Exp. Med. 136,
G. W., Palmer G. A., Rowland R. R. R., Even C., and Plagemann P. G. W.
(1995) Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia
virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J mice predisposes
mice to paralytic infection by lactate dehydrogenase- elevating virus.
Journal of Virology 69, 308-319.
R., Mahin D. T., Farris R. D., and Woodward K. T. (1967) Heritability
of plasma cholinesterase activity in inbred mouse strains. Science
M., Morizot D. C., and Richie E. R. (1993) Localization of a novel chromosome
7 locus that suppresses development of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced
murine thymic lymphomas. Molecular Carcinogenesis 7, 151-156.
Arnesen K. (1963)
The cytology of the adrenal cortex in mice with spontaneous adrenocortical
lipid depletion. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 58, 212-218.
R. B. and Bolitho E. M. (1993) Strain differences in the severity of lesions
in murine systemic candidiasis correlate with the production of functional
gamma interferon by Candida-activated lymphocytes in vitro. Lymphokine
and Cytokine Research 12, 471-476.
Badr F. M. (1975) Prostaglandin
levels in tissues of the male reproductive system in six strains of mice.
Endocrinol. 96, 540-543.
C. P., Donati E. J., Volz J. E., and Smith E. B. (1975) Variations in
serum calcium between strains of inbred mice. Lab. Animal Sci.
W. G., Donahue L. R., Rosen C. J., and Baylink D. J. (1996) Genetic-variability
in adult bone-density among inbred strains of mice. Bone 18,
A. G., Halvorsen S., Abdelnoor M., and Skottner A. (1993) Growth hormone
treatment and development of malignancy: Recombinant human growth hormone
does not induce leukemia in AKR/O-mice. Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
D. K., Gruntenko E. V., and Videlets I. Y. (1970) Genetic differentiation
of the thymus in mice of different strains with respect to malignant growth
communication. II. Differences in the weight of the thymus in various
strains of mice. Sov. Genet. 6, 47-51.
E. (1966) Physiological characteristics, in Biology of the Laboratory
Mouse, 2nd. ed. (Green E. L., ed), pp. 337-350. McGraw-Hill, New
B., Geckeler W. R., and Weigert M. (1972) Genetics of the antibody response
to Dextran in mice. Science 177, 178-180.
and Kilham L. (1974) Carrier-determined tolerance in various strains of
mice: the role of isogenic IgG in the induction of hapten specific tolerance.
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 145, 470-474.
D. W., Hayashi K., Rosenthal J., and Notkins A. L. (1975) Virus-induced
diabetes mellitus. III. Influence of sex and strain of host. J. Infect.
Dis. 131, 462-466.
Briody B. A. (1966)
The natural history of mouse pox. National Cancer Institute Monograph
Bruell J. H. (1964)
Inheritance of behavioural and physiological characters of mice and the
problem of heterosis. Am. Zool. 4, 125-138.
De Souza C. M.,
Maia L. C. S., and Vaz N. M. (1974) Susceptibility to cutaneous anaphylaxis
in inbred strains of mice. J. Immunol. 112, 1369-1372.
A., Meier H., and Huebner R. J. (1973) Transplacental effects of 1- ethyl-1-nitrosourea
in inbred strains of mice. III. Association between infectious or subinfectious
endogenous type-C-RNA tumour virus expression and chemically induced tumorigenesis.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51, 1965-1970.
A., Meier H., and Huebner R. J. (1974) Transplacental effect of 1- -ethyl-1-nitrosourea
in inbred strains of mice. IV. Rapid tumoe induction in strain crosses.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52, 893-895.
and Schimke R. T. (1969) The genetic and developmental regulation of hepatic
-aminolaevulinate dehydratase in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 244,
Eaton G. J. (1972) Intestinal
helminths in the mouse. Lab. Animal Sci. 22, 850-853.
G. P., West D. B., Boozer C. N., and Atkinson R. L. (1994) Insulin sensitivity
of adipocytes from inbred mouse strains resistant or sensitive to diet-induced
obesity. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and
Comparative Physiology 266, R1423-R1428.
T., Shows T. B., Sproul E. E., Paolini N. S., Mittelman A., and Hauschka
T. S. (1977) Genetics of colon carcinogenesis in mice treated with 1,
2-dimethylhydrazine. Cancer Res. 37, 134-136.
C. B., Davidson M. K., Davis J. K., Schoeb T. R., Simecka J. W., and Lindsey
J. R. (1995) Acute Mycoplasma pulmonis infection associated with coagulopathy
in C3H/HeN mice. Lab. Animal Sci. 45, 368-372.
M. F. W. and Blackmore D. K. (1971) Life span of specified-pathogen-free
(MRC category 4) mice and rats. Lab. Anim. 5, 179-192.
J. L. and Sjursen F. H. (1967) Audiogenic seizures in eleven mouse strains.
J. Hered. 58, 135-140.
D. J., Neumann P. E., Taylor B. A., Jenkins N. A., and Copeland N. G.
(1993) Susceptibility of AKXD recombinant inbred mouse strains to lymphomas.
Journal of Virology 67, 2083-2090.
B. D., Lai L. Y., Ross S. R., and Cuzzi-Spada R. (1973) Susceptibility
of inbred mouse strains to ozone. Arch. Environ. Health 27,
C. T., Judge F. J., and Whitney R. A. (1973) Catalog of NIH rodents.
National Institutes of Health. DHEW publication (NIH) 74-606, Bethesda.
N., Peled A., Brightman B. K., and Fan H. (1993) Lymphomagenesis in AKR.Fv-1b
congenic mice. Cancer Res. 53, 3433-3438.
H. J., Taylor B. A., Hards E. J., and Meier H. (1975) Heritability of
the phytohaemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes and its relationship
to leukemogenesis. Cancer Res. 35, 825-831.
Herr W. and
Gilbert W. (1982) Germ-line MuLV reintegrations in AKR/J mice. Nature
Hoag W. G. (1963) Spontaneous
cancer in mice. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 108, 805-831.
Huff S. D.
and Chaykin S. (1967) Genetic and androgenic control of N- methylnicotinamide
oxidase activity in mice. J. Biol. Chem. 242, 1265-1270.
Jiao S., Cole
T. G., Kitchens R., Pfleger B., and Schonfeld G. (1990) Genetic heterogeneity
of lipoproteins in inbred strains of mice: analysis by gel-permeation
chromatography. Metabolism 39, 155-160.
A. K., Nash A. A., Wildy P., Phelan J., Henney S., Rebello P., and Blaskovic
D. (1992) Relative role of B and T lymphocytes in pathogenesis of a murine
herpes virus. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 30, 690-695.
I., Nakamura O., and Tai T. (1992) Antibody responses to ganglio-series
gangliosides in different strains of inbred mice. Molecular Immunology
Kirk E. A.,
Moe G. L., Caldwell M. T., Lernmark J. A., Wilson D. L., and LeBoeuf R.
C. (1995) Hyper- and hypo-responsiveness to dietary fat and cholesterol
among inbred mice: Searching for level and variability genes. J. Lipid
Res. 36, 1522-1532.
E., Diller E., Weber G., and Davies A. J. S. (1971) Genetics of the immune
response. I. The immune response to the phage fd in high and low responding
inbred strains of mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 1, 201-210.
Y., Naito T., Obayashi K., Hirasawa M., Kurihara Y., and Moriwaki K. (1991)
Caries susceptibility in inbred mouse strains and inheritance patterns
in F1 and backcross (N2) progeny from strains with high and low caries
susceptibility. Caries Res. 25, 341-346.
Lee B. K. and
Eicher E. M. (1990) Segregation patterns of endogenous mouse mammary tumor
viruses in five recombinant inbred strain sets [published erratum appears
in J Virol 1991 Mar;65(3):1666]. J. Virol. 64, 4568-4572.
Lei H. Y., Lee
S. H., and Leir S. H. (1996) Antigen-induced anaphylactic death in mice.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 109,
A. and Deknudt G. (1967) A new marker for chromosome studies in the mouse.
Nature 214, 504-505.
A., Deknudt G., and Linden G. (1971) Ovulation and prenatal losses in
different strains of mice. Exp. Anim. (France) 4, 1-6.
B. B. and Vaz N. M. (1970) Effect of combinations of inbred strain, antigen
and antigen dose on immune responsiveness and reagin production in the
mouse. Int. Arch. Allergy 39, 156-171.
B., Cobb R. R., and Whitney JB I. I. I. (1993) Recombination and genetic
polymorphism at the mouse alpha-globin locus. Genomics 18,
R. A., Suzuki S., Liebelt A. G., and Lane M. (1970) Virus-like particles
in chemically induced sarcomas in high- and low-leukemia strains of mice.
Cancer Res. 30, 2438-2448.
J. and Kellog F. (1967) Hyaline-membrane formation and pulmonary plasminogen-activator
activity in various strains of mice. Pediatrics 39, 75-81.
and Pincus T. (1973) Genetic control of murine viral leukemogenesis. Adv.
Cancer Res. 17, 231-277.
Lopez C. (1975) Genetics
of natural resistance to herpes virus infections in mice. Nature
Lovell D.P. (1986)
Variation in pentobarbitone sleeping time in mice. I. strain and sex differences.
Lab. Anim. 20, 85-90.
N. and Gelderman A. H. (1971) Resistance of AKR mice to lymphoid leukemia
associated with a chronic protozoan infection, Besnoitia jellisoni. J.
Natl. Cancer Inst. 47, 485-488.
Lush I.M. (1988) The genetics
of tasting in mice. VI. Saccharin, acesulfame, dulcin and sucrose. Genet.
Res. 53, 95-99.
Magdon E. von (1962)
Untersuchungen der katalaseaktivitat des Blutes vershiedener Mausestamme.
Z. Versuchstierk. 1, 173-178.
Margolis F. L.
(1971) Regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis in the Harderian gland of
inbred mouse strains. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 145, 373-381.
J., Stitzel J. A., and Collins A. C. (1989) Genetic influences on nicotine
responses. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 33, 667-678.
M. M. and Dutton R. W. (1975) The humoral response of mouse spleen cells
to two types of sheep erythrocytes. J. Immunol. 115, 1316-1321.
Muthing J. (1997)
Neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides from spleen T lymphoblasts
of genetically different inbred mouse strains. Glycoconjugate Journal
D., Meier H., and Huebner R. J. (1970) Prevalence of murine C-type RNA
virus group specific antigen in inbred strains of mice. Life Sci.
K., Nakao M., and Ito A. (1997) Echinococcus multilocularis:
Mouse strain difference in hydatid development. J. Helminthology
T. and Trainin N. (1973) Leukemia induction in C3H mice following their
inoculation with normal AKR lymphoid cells. Int. J. Cancer 11,
E. M., Skrinskaya J. A., and Popova N. K. (1991) Role of genotype and
dopamine receptors in behaviour of inbred mice in a forced swimming test.
Psychopharmacology 105, 525-529.
P. M., Wang J., Toyofuku W., Kuypers F. A., Ishida B. Y., and Paigen B.
(1993) Atherosclerosis and plasma and liver lipids in nine inbred strains
of mice. Lipids 28, 599-605.
F. P. and Hoffman H. A. (1994) Susceptibility to immunosuppression by
ultraviolet B radiation in the mouse. Immunogenet. 39,
D. M. and Weinshilboum R. M. (1987a) Mouse thiopurine methyltransferase
pharmacogenetics: biochemical studies and recombinant inbred strains.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therapeut. 240, 180-186.
A. C., Gelderman A. H., Ragland R. H., and Hoffman H. A. (1967) Haptoglobin
levels in serum of various strains of mice. Science 158,
Pollard M. (1973)
Multinucleated acinar cells in the pancreases of AKR and C58 mice. Experientia
Ram J. S., Dehellis
R. A., and Glenner G. G. (1969) Amyloid. VIII on strain variation in experimental
murine amyloidosis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 130, 462-464.
T. H., Wimer R. E., Wimer C. C., and Schwartzkroin P. A. (1973) Genetic
and phenotypic variation in weight of brain and spinal cord between inbred
strains of mice. Brain Res. 64, 345-353.
Roderick T. H.
(1963) The response of twenty-seven inbred strains of mice to daily doses
of whole-body X-irradiation. Radiation Res. 20, 631-639.
A., Peled A., HaranGhera N., and Canaani E. (1993) Analysis of Ly-1+ B-cell
populations and IgH rearrangements in 'normal' spleens and in lymphomas
of AKR/J and AKR Fv-1b mice. Cancer Res. 53, 2147-2153.
R., Yeudall L. T., and Poley W. (1971) Diallel analysis of avoidance conditioning
in inbred strains of mice. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 76,
P., Liu N., Strenn E. W., and Decary F. (1974) Electrophoretic mobility
and agglutinability of red blood cells: a `new' polymorphism in mice.
J. Exp. Med. 139, 313-322.
E. S., Neufeld E. F., and Higgins C. T. (1951) Comparison of normal blood
picture of young adults from 18 inbred strains of mice. Proc. Soc.
Exp. Biol. Med. 78, 761-766.
G. and Dickie M. M. (1967) Spontaneous mutations and mutation rates in
the house mouse. Genetics 57, 319-330.
F. A., Dickey P. A., Stanco G. A., and Tarnowski G. S. (1966) Toxicity
of intraperitoneal injections of 7,1 2-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)
and other agents in inbred mice.# Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res.
G. M. and Bartke A. (1972) Strain differences in testicular weight and
spermatogenesis with special reference to C57BL/10J and DBA/2J mice. J.
Endocrinol. 55, 163-171.
K., West D. B., and York D. A. (1997) Carbohydrate versus fat intake:
Differing patterns of macronutrient selection in two inbred mouse strains.
American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative
Physiology 41, R357-R362.
C. H. and Clark L. H. (1966) Aggressive behaviour and exploratory activity
in fourteen mouse strains. Am. Zool. 6, 559.
Storer J. B. (1966)
Longevity and gross pathology at death in 22 inbred strains of mice. J.
Gerontol. 21, 404-409.
Storer J. B. (1967)
Relation of lifespan to brain weight, body weight and metabolic rate among
inbred mouse strains. Exp. Gerontol. 2, 173-182.
M., Kleeberger S. R., and Croxton T. L. (1995) Genetic control of susceptibility
to ozone-induced changes in mouse tracheal electrophysiology. American
Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 269,
P. E., Hutton J. J., and Taylor B. A. (1973) Genetic relationship between
aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility and chemical carcinogen induced
skin ulceration in mice. Genetics 74, 655-659.
Thompson W. R.
(1953) The inheritance of behaviour: behavioural differences in fifteen
mouse strains. Can. J. Psychol. 7, 145-155.
Vaz N. M., Phillips-Quagliata
J. M., Levine B. B., and Vaz E. M. (1971) H-2 linked genetic control of
immune responsiveness to ovalbumin and ovomucoid. J. Exp. Med.
West D. B.,
Boozer C. N., Moody D. L., and Atkinson R. L. (1992) Dietary obesity in
nine inbred mouse strains. Am. J. Physiol. 262, R1025-R1032.
West D. B.,
Waguespack J., and McCollister S. (1995) Dietary obesity in the mouse:
Interaction of strain with diet composition. American Journal of Physiology
- Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 268, R658-R665.
C. E., Salerno R. A., Rabstein L. S., Heubner R. J., and Turner H. C.
(1971) RNA tumour-virus antigen expression in chemically induced tumours.
Virus-genome specified common antigens detected by complement fixation
in mouse tumours induced by 3-methylcholanthrene. J. Natl. Cancer
Inst. 47, 1255-1265.
J. T., Asofsky R., and Barth W. F. (1969) Experimental murine amyloid.
IV amyloidosis and immunoglobulins. J. Immunol. 103, 741-749.
N. M. and Timoney P. J. (1994) Variation in susceptibility of ten mouse
strains to infection with a strain of Ehrlichia risticii. J. Comp.
Pathol. 110, 137-143.
C. F., Singer-Vermes L. M., Calich V. L. G., and Burger E. (1994) Plasma
amylase levels as a marker of disease severity in an isogenic murine model
of paracoccidioidomycosis. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology
R., Deacon N. J., Ebringer A., and Davis D. A. L. (1976) Genetic control
of the immune response to ferritin in mice. J. Immunogenet. 3,
Y., Levitt R. C., and Kleeberger S. R. (1995) Differential susceptibility
to ozone-induced airways hyperreactivity in inbred strains of mice. Experimental
Lung Research 21, 503-518.
INBRED STRAINS OF MICE
Updated 9 Apr. 1998
MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,
University of Leicester,