Mouse Genome Informatics
hm
    Slc6a3tm1Mca/Slc6a3tm1Mca
involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
       
mortality/aging
• 68% survival after 10 wks

growth/size
• mutants are smaller than wild-type; femur length is 1.46 cm in adult mutants and 1.55 cm in wild-type adult animals, whereas length is 1.46 cm in 6-week old wild-type
• reduced weight apparent by 1 week of age with a 44% reduction in body weight relative to wild-type by 8 weeks
• homozygotes exhibit slower rate of weight gain than wild-type mice, and remain lighter than wild-type through 10 weeks of age (J:31328)
• mutant mice raised by foster mothers exhibited slower rates of growth than wild-type mice (J:41856)

behavior/neurological
• time spent in central compartment is decreased by 87.5% and time per visit is decreased by 86.1% relative to wild-type
• mutants show impaired learning in radial arm maze tests
• 5adult (18-24 weeks of age) mice tend to spend slightly less time on the rotating rod than wild-type, and acquisition of maximal performance appears to be slower in mutant animals
• in a pole test, mutants display dramatically impaired performance on the T-turn (time increased 692%) and the T-total (time increased 552%) compared to wild-type
• 29.2% fewer rearing movements relative to wild-type
• naive homozygous mice exhibit highly elevated spontaneous locomotor activity, with a 2-fold increased half-time of habituation, and are 5-6-fold more active during both phases of the light-dark cycle compared to wild-type (J:31328)
• mice exhibit spontaneous hyperlocomotor activity similar to that displayed by wild-type mice administered maximal doses of cocaine or amphetamine (J:31328)
• in novel environment, animals exhibit much higher activity levels than wild-type, and show little habituation after 4 hours whereas wild-type habituate in 20-40 minutes (J:79011)
• hyperactivity was suppressed by the administration of psychostimulants (J:79011)
• mice show hyperactivity with increased velocity and distance traveled compared to wild-type (J:109373)
• decrease in both fore- and hind-limb stride lengths (decrease of 18.1% and 15.4% respectively) is observed relative to adult mice; stride lengths are significantly different from 6-week old wild-type mice, showing that femur length is not cause for difference.
• females show impaired maternal behavior such that offspring survival partially dependent on transfer to foster mother (J:31328)

nervous system
• reduced density and distribution of lactotrophs and somatotrophs
• unaffected density and distribution of thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs
• selective decrease in pituitary
• selective decrease in pituitary
• at 4 and 8 weeks of age, anterior lobe is ~50% of normal weight
• at 4 and 8 weeks of age, intermediate lobe is ~50% of normal weight
• growth hormone-releasing hormone, GHRH content in pituitary is decreased by 43% relative to wild-type mice
• 85% reduction in level of prolactin in pituitary gland, though plasma prolactin levels were normal
• 70% reduction in level of growth hormone in pituitary gland, though plasma growth hormone levels were normal
• evoked release of dopamine from caudate brain slices produces an extracellular concentration of 1.1 um compared to 4.1 um in wild-type slices (J:31328)
• pituitary dopamine content is decreased by ~35% and hypothalamic tissue dopamine content is reduced by 30% relative to wild-type (J:41856)
• level of dopamine in ventral midbrain and striatum is extensively decreased (J:59670)
• dopamine persists in the extracellular space 300 times longer than in wild-type mice, but extracellular levels are only 5-fold greater than in wild-type (J:79010)
• 95% reduction of intracellular dopamine and 75% reduction in release, but rate of synthesis is doubled (J:79010)
• decreased number of dopa decarboxylase- and tyrosine hydroxylase-labeled neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area is detected (J:59670)
• small, significant decrease in neuronal density in anterior striatum is seen compared to wild-type (J:109373)

endocrine/exocrine glands
• reduced density and distribution of lactotrophs and somatotrophs
• unaffected density and distribution of thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs
• selective decrease in pituitary
• selective decrease in pituitary
• at 4 and 8 weeks of age, anterior lobe is ~50% of normal weight
• at 4 and 8 weeks of age, intermediate lobe is ~50% of normal weight
• females cannot lactate postpartum (J:41856)
• growth hormone-releasing hormone, GHRH content in pituitary is decreased by 43% relative to wild-type mice
• 85% reduction in level of prolactin in pituitary gland, though plasma prolactin levels were normal
• 70% reduction in level of growth hormone in pituitary gland, though plasma growth hormone levels were normal

skeleton
• reduction in the length of long bones

integument
• females cannot lactate postpartum (J:41856)

homeostasis/metabolism
• evoked release of dopamine from caudate brain slices produces an extracellular concentration of 1.1 um compared to 4.1 um in wild-type slices (J:31328)
• pituitary dopamine content is decreased by ~35% and hypothalamic tissue dopamine content is reduced by 30% relative to wild-type (J:41856)
• level of dopamine in ventral midbrain and striatum is extensively decreased (J:59670)
• dopamine persists in the extracellular space 300 times longer than in wild-type mice, but extracellular levels are only 5-fold greater than in wild-type (J:79010)
• 95% reduction of intracellular dopamine and 75% reduction in release, but rate of synthesis is doubled (J:79010)

Mouse Models of Human Disease
OMIM IDRef(s)
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder; ADHD 143465 J:79011
Schizophrenia; SCZD 181500 J:31328