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Gene Ontology Classifications
runt related transcription factor 2

Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph)

GO curators for mouse genes have assigned the following annotations to the gene product of Runx2. (This text reflects annotations as of Tuesday, May 26, 2015.)
Summary from NCBI RefSeq

[Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and encodes a nuclear protein with an Runt DNA-binding domain. This protein is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis and acts as a scaffold for nucleic acids and regulatory factors involved in skeletal gene expression. The protein can bind DNA both as a monomer or, with more affinity, as a subunit of a heterodimeric complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the bone development disorder cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms result from the use of alternate promoters as well as alternate splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in mouse
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in other organisms
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by structural data
Summary text for additional MGI annotations
  1. Aberg T et al. (2004) Runx2 mediates FGF signaling from epithelium to mesenchyme during tooth morphogenesis. Dev Biol, 270:76-93. (PubMed:15136142)
  2. Aberg T et al. (2004) Phenotypic changes in dentition of Runx2 homozygote-null mutant mice. J Histochem Cytochem, 52:131-9. (PubMed:14688224)
  3. Aqeilan RI et al. (2008) The WWOX tumor suppressor is essential for postnatal survival and normal bone metabolism. J Biol Chem, 283:21629-39. (PubMed:18487609)
  4. Bialek P et al. (2004) A twist code determines the onset of osteoblast differentiation. Dev Cell, 6:423-35. (PubMed:15030764)
  5. Cho YD et al. (2010) The canonical BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial part in stimulation of dentin sialophosphoprotein expression by BMP-2. J Biol Chem, 285:36369-76. (PubMed:20843790)
  6. Dobreva G et al. (2006) SATB2 is a multifunctional determinant of craniofacial patterning and osteoblast differentiation. Cell, 125:971-86. (PubMed:16751105)
  7. Ducy P et al. (1997) Osf2/Cbfa1: a transcriptional activator of osteoblast differentiation [see comments] Cell, 89:747-54. (PubMed:9182762)
  8. Fulzele K et al. (2010) Insulin receptor signaling in osteoblasts regulates postnatal bone acquisition and body composition. Cell, 142:309-19. (PubMed:20655471)
  9. Funato N et al. (2009) Hand2 controls osteoblast differentiation in the branchial arch by inhibiting DNA binding of Runx2. Development, 136:615-25. (PubMed:19144722)
  10. Gross S et al. (2012) Hoxa11 and Hoxd11 regulate chondrocyte differentiation upstream of Runx2 and Shox2 in mice. PLoS One, 7:e43553. (PubMed:22916278)
  11. Guo J et al. (2006) PTH/PTHrP receptor delays chondrocyte hypertrophy via both Runx2-dependent and -independent pathways. Dev Biol, 292:116-28. (PubMed:16476422)
  12. Han J et al. (2007) Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev, 124:729-45. (PubMed:17693062)
  13. Hisa I et al. (2011) Parathyroid Hormone-responsive Smad3-related Factor, Tmem119, Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation and Interacts with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Runx2 Pathway. J Biol Chem, 286:9787-96. (PubMed:21239498)
  14. Hong JH et al. (2005) TAZ, a transcriptional modulator of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Science, 309:1074-8. (PubMed:16099986)
  15. Hu R et al. (2011) A Runx2/miR-3960/miR-2861 Regulatory Feedback Loop during Mouse Osteoblast Differentiation. J Biol Chem, 286:12328-39. (PubMed:21324897)
  16. Ichida F et al. (2004) Reciprocal roles of MSX2 in regulation of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem, 279:34015-22. (PubMed:15175325)
  17. Ichikawa Y et al. (2004) Evaluation of 9.4-T MR microimaging in assessing normal and defective fetal bone development: comparison of MR imaging and histological findings. Bone, 34:619-28. (PubMed:15050892)
  18. Inada M et al. (1999) Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn, 214:279-90. (PubMed:10213384)
  19. Jensen ED et al. (2008) p68 (Ddx5) interacts with Runx2 and regulates osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Biochem, 103:1438-51. (PubMed:17960593)
  20. Kahler RA et al. (2003) Lymphoid enhancer factor-1 and beta-catenin inhibit Runx2-dependent transcriptional activation of the osteocalcin promoter. J Biol Chem, 278:11937-44. (PubMed:12551949)
  21. Kang JS et al. (2005) Repression of Runx2 function by TGF-beta through recruitment of class II histone deacetylases by Smad3. EMBO J, 24:2543-55. (PubMed:15990875)
  22. Kim IS et al. (1999) Regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by Cbfa1. Mech Dev, 80:159-70. (PubMed:10072783)
  23. Kundu M et al. (2002) Cbfbeta interacts with Runx2 and has a critical role in bone development. Nat Genet, 32:639-44. (PubMed:12434156)
  24. Satake M et al. (1995) Expression of the Runt domain-encoding PEBP2 alpha genes in T cells during thymic development. Mol Cell Biol, 15:1662-70. (PubMed:7862157)
  25. Sharff KA et al. (2009) Hey1 basic helix-loop-helix protein plays an important role in mediating BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells. J Biol Chem, 284:649-59. (PubMed:18986983)
  26. Shimizu T. (2006) Participation of Runx2 in mandibular condylar cartilage development. Eur J Med Res, 11:455-61. (PubMed:17182356)
  27. Smith N et al. (2005) Overlapping expression of Runx1(Cbfa2) and Runx2(Cbfa1) transcription factors supports cooperative induction of skeletal development. J Cell Physiol, 203:133-43. (PubMed:15389629)
  28. Sowa H et al. (2004) Menin is required for bone morphogenetic protein 2- and transforming growth factor beta-regulated osteoblastic differentiation through interaction with Smads and Runx2. J Biol Chem, 279:40267-75. (PubMed:15150273)
  29. Terry A et al. (2004) Conservation and expression of an alternative 3' exon of Runx2 encoding a novel proline-rich C-terminal domain. Gene, 336:115-25. (PubMed:15225881)
  30. Tokuzawa Y et al. (2010) Id4, a new candidate gene for senile osteoporosis, acts as a molecular switch promoting osteoblast differentiation. PLoS Genet, 6:e1001019. (PubMed:20628571)
  31. Vega RB et al. (2004) Histone deacetylase 4 controls chondrocyte hypertrophy during skeletogenesis. Cell, 119:555-66. (PubMed:15537544)
  32. Wang XP et al. (2005) Runx2 (Cbfa1) inhibits Shh signaling in the lower but not upper molars of mouse embryos and prevents the budding of putative successional teeth. J Dent Res, 84:138-43. (PubMed:15668330)
  33. Yamauchi M et al. (2008) Odd-skipped related 1 gene expression is regulated by Runx2 and Ikzf1 transcription factors. Gene, 426:81-90. (PubMed:18804520)
  34. Yang S et al. (2011) Foxo1 mediates insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/insulin regulation of osteocalcin expression by antagonizing Runx2 in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem, 286:19149-58. (PubMed:21471200)
  35. Yoshida CA et al. (2004) Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx2 regulates limb growth through induction of Indian hedgehog. Genes Dev, 18:952-63. (PubMed:15107406)
  36. Young DW et al. (2005) SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is obligatory for BMP2-induced, Runx2-dependent skeletal gene expression that controls osteoblast differentiation. J Cell Biochem, 94:720-30. (PubMed:15565649)
  37. Zhang L et al. (2003) Mutagenesis of the Runt domain defines two energetic hot spots for heterodimerization with the core binding factor beta subunit. J Biol Chem, 278:33097-104. (PubMed:12807883)
  38. Zhang Y et al. (2011) A program of microRNAs controls osteogenic lineage progression by targeting transcription factor Runx2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108:9863-8. (PubMed:21628588)
  39. Zheng L et al. (2007) Runx3 negatively regulates Osterix expression in dental pulp cells. Biochem J, 405:69-75. (PubMed:17352693)

Go Annotations in Tabular Form (Text View) (GO Graph)

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Gene Ontology Evidence Code Abbreviations:

  EXP Inferred from experiment
  IAS Inferred from ancestral sequence
  IBA Inferred from biological aspect of ancestor
  IBD Inferred from biological aspect of descendant
  IC Inferred by curator
  IDA Inferred from direct assay
  IEA Inferred from electronic annotation
  IGI Inferred from genetic interaction
  IKR Inferred from key residues
  IMP Inferred from mutant phenotype
  IMR Inferred from missing residues
  IPI Inferred from physical interaction
  IRD Inferred from rapid divergence
  ISS Inferred from sequence or structural similarity
  ISO Inferred from sequence orthology
  ISA Inferred from sequence alignment
  ISM Inferred from sequence model
  NAS Non-traceable author statement
  ND No biological data available
  RCA Reviewed computational analysis
  TAS Traceable author statement


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