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Gene Ontology Classifications
msh homeobox 2

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GO curators for mouse genes have assigned the following annotations to the gene product of Msx2. (This text reflects annotations as of Tuesday, May 26, 2015.)
Summary from NCBI RefSeq

[Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the muscle segment homeobox gene family. The encoded protein is a transcriptional repressor whose normal activity may establish a balance between survival and apoptosis of neural crest-derived cells required for proper craniofacial morphogenesis. The encoded protein may also have a role in promoting cell growth under certain conditions and may be an important target for the RAS signaling pathways. Mutations in this gene are associated with parietal foramina 1 and craniosynostosis type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in mouse
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in other organisms
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by structural data
Summary text for additional MGI annotations
  1. Begue-Kirn C et al. (1994) Comparative analysis of TGF beta s, BMPs, IGF1, msxs, fibronectin, osteonectin and bone sialoprotein gene expression during normal and in vitro-induced odontoblast differentiation. Int J Dev Biol, 38:405-20. (PubMed:7848824)
  2. Bensoussan-Trigano V et al. (2011) Msx1 and Msx2 in limb mesenchyme modulate digit number and identity. Dev Dyn, 240:1190-202. (PubMed:21465616)
  3. Boogerd KJ et al. (2008) Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43. Cardiovasc Res, 78:485-93. (PubMed:18285513)
  4. Catron KM et al. (1996) Comparison of MSX-1 and MSX-2 suggests a molecular basis for functional redundancy. Mech Dev, 55:185-99. (PubMed:8861098)
  5. Chen YH et al. (2008) Msx1 and Msx2 are required for endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the atrioventricular cushions and patterning of the atrioventricular myocardium. BMC Dev Biol, 8:75. (PubMed:18667074)
  6. Chen YH et al. (2007) Msx1 and Msx2 regulate survival of secondary heart field precursors and post-migratory proliferation of cardiac neural crest in the outflow tract. Dev Biol, 308:421-37. (PubMed:17601530)
  7. Cho A et al. (2008) FKBP8 cell-autonomously controls neural tube patterning through a Gli2- and Kif3a-dependent mechanism. Dev Biol, 321:27-39. (PubMed:18590716)
  8. Cho YD et al. (2010) The canonical BMP signaling pathway plays a crucial part in stimulation of dentin sialophosphoprotein expression by BMP-2. J Biol Chem, 285:36369-76. (PubMed:20843790)
  9. Genc B et al. (2001) Whisker-related neural patterns develop normally despite severe whisker defects in Msx2 knockout mice. Brain Res Dev Brain Res, 132:107-11. (PubMed:11744114)
  10. Han J et al. (2007) Concerted action of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating cranial neural crest cell differentiation during frontal bone development. Mech Dev, 124:729-45. (PubMed:17693062)
  11. Hayashi K et al. (2006) Bone morphogenetic protein-induced MSX1 and MSX2 inhibit myocardin-dependent smooth muscle gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol, 26:9456-70. (PubMed:17030628)
  12. Ichida F et al. (2004) Reciprocal roles of MSX2 in regulation of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem, 279:34015-22. (PubMed:15175325)
  13. Ikegawa M et al. (2008) Syndactyly and preaxial synpolydactyly in the single Sfrp2 deleted mutant mice. Dev Dyn, 237:2506-17. (PubMed:18729207)
  14. Kim YJ et al. (2004) Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced alkaline phosphatase expression is stimulated by Dlx5 and repressed by Msx2. J Biol Chem, 279:50773-80. (PubMed:15383550)
  15. Kuwajima T et al. (2004) Necdin interacts with the Msx2 homeodomain protein via MAGE-D1 to promote myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells. J Biol Chem, 279:40484-93. (PubMed:15272023)
  16. Lallemand Y et al. (2009) Msx genes are important apoptosis effectors downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway in the limb. Dev Biol, 331:189-98. (PubMed:19422820)
  17. Lallemand Y et al. (2005) Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development. Development, 132:3003-14. (PubMed:15930102)
  18. Le Bouffant R et al. (2011) Msx1 and Msx2 promote meiosis initiation. Development, 138:5393-402. (PubMed:22071108)
  19. Masuda Y et al. (2001) Dlxin-1, a novel protein that binds Dlx5 and regulates its transcriptional function. J Biol Chem, 276:5331-8. (PubMed:11084035)
  20. Newberry EP et al. (1999) The RRM domain of MINT, a novel Msx2 binding protein, recognizes and regulates the rat osteocalcin promoter. Biochemistry, 38:10678-90. (PubMed:10451362)
  21. Newberry EP et al. (1997) Structure-function analysis of Msx2-mediated transcriptional suppression. Biochemistry, 36:10451-62. (PubMed:9265625)
  22. Phippard DJ et al. (1996) Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development. Development, 122:2729-37. (PubMed:8787747)
  23. Sasaki A et al. (2002) A RING finger protein Praja1 regulates Dlx5-dependent transcription through its ubiquitin ligase activity for the Dlx/Msx-interacting MAGE/Necdin family protein, Dlxin-1. J Biol Chem, 277:22541-6. (PubMed:11959851)
  24. Satokata I et al. (2000) Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation. Nat Genet, 24:391-5. (PubMed:10742104)
  25. Takahashi K et al. (2001) Msx2 is a repressor of chondrogenic differentiation in migratory cranial neural crest cells. Dev Dyn, 222:252-62. (PubMed:11668602)
  26. Yeh J et al. (2009) Accelerated closure of skin wounds in mice deficient in the homeobox gene Msx2. Wound Repair Regen, 17:639-48. (PubMed:19769717)

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Gene Ontology Evidence Code Abbreviations:

  EXP Inferred from experiment
  IAS Inferred from ancestral sequence
  IBA Inferred from biological aspect of ancestor
  IBD Inferred from biological aspect of descendant
  IC Inferred by curator
  IDA Inferred from direct assay
  IEA Inferred from electronic annotation
  IGI Inferred from genetic interaction
  IKR Inferred from key residues
  IMP Inferred from mutant phenotype
  IMR Inferred from missing residues
  IPI Inferred from physical interaction
  IRD Inferred from rapid divergence
  ISS Inferred from sequence or structural similarity
  ISO Inferred from sequence orthology
  ISA Inferred from sequence alignment
  ISM Inferred from sequence model
  NAS Non-traceable author statement
  ND No biological data available
  RCA Reviewed computational analysis
  TAS Traceable author statement


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