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Gene Ontology Classifications
glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph)

GO curators for mouse genes have assigned the following annotations to the gene product of Gsk3b. (This text reflects annotations as of Tuesday, May 26, 2015.)
Summary from NCBI RefSeq

[Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase, belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in modifying risk of Parkinson disease, and studies in mice show that overexpression of this gene may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in mouse
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in other organisms
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by structural data
Summary text for additional MGI annotations
  1. Antos CL et al. (2002) Activated glycogen synthase-3 beta suppresses cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 99:907-12. (PubMed:11782539)
  2. Baki L et al. (2004) PS1 activates PI3K thus inhibiting GSK-3 activity and tau overphosphorylation: effects of FAD mutations. EMBO J, 23:2586-96. (PubMed:15192701)
  3. Beaulieu JM et al. (2005) An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell, 122:261-73. (PubMed:16051150)
  4. Bechard M et al. (2012) Frat is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-regulated determinant of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta subcellular localization in pluripotent cells. Mol Cell Biol, 32:288-96. (PubMed:22064483)
  5. Behrens J et al. (1998) Functional interaction of an axin homolog, conductin, with beta-catenin, APC, and GSK3beta. Science, 280:596-9. (PubMed:9554852)
  6. Bek S et al. (2002) Protein kinase CKII regulates the interaction of beta-catenin with alpha-catenin and its protein stability. J Cell Sci, 115:4743-53. (PubMed:12432063)
  7. Chen HJ et al. (2006) The role of microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1 (MACF1) in the Wnt signaling pathway. Genes Dev, 20:1933-45. (PubMed:16815997)
  8. Chen M et al. (2012) Spatially coordinated kinase signaling regulates local axon degeneration. J Neurosci, 32:13439-53. (PubMed:23015435)
  9. Chen T et al. (2009) Identification of zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3 (Zbed3) as a novel Axin-interacting protein that activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. J Biol Chem, 284:6683-9. (PubMed:19141611)
  10. Hoeflich KP et al. (2000) Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation [see comments] Nature, 406:86-90. (PubMed:10894547)
  11. Ishizuka K et al. (2011) DISC1-dependent switch from progenitor proliferation to migration in the developing cortex. Nature, 473:92-6. (PubMed:21471969)
  12. Kanamori M et al. (2003) The PDZ protein tax-interacting protein-1 inhibits beta-catenin transcriptional activity and growth of colorectal cancer cells. J Biol Chem, 278:38758-64. (PubMed:12874278)
  13. Kim MJ et al. (2008) SUMOylation target sites at the C terminus protect Axin from ubiquitination and confer protein stability. FASEB J, 22:3785-94. (PubMed:18632848)
  14. Kurabayashi N et al. (2010) DYRK1A and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, a dual-kinase mechanism directing proteasomal degradation of CRY2 for circadian timekeeping. Mol Cell Biol, 30:1757-68. (PubMed:20123978)
  15. Lappalainen S et al. (2009) LRP5 in premature adrenarche and in metabolic characteristics of prepubertal children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 70:725-31. (PubMed:18721193)
  16. Li CL et al. (2014) SRF phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 promotes axon growth in hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci, 34:4027-42. (PubMed:24623780)
  17. Longo KA et al. (2002) Wnt signaling protects 3T3-L1 preadipocytes from apoptosis through induction of insulin-like growth factors. J Biol Chem, 277:38239-44. (PubMed:12154096)
  18. Luna-Zurita L et al. (2010) Integration of a Notch-dependent mesenchymal gene program and Bmp2-driven cell invasiveness regulates murine cardiac valve formation. J Clin Invest, 120:3493-507. (PubMed:20890042)
  19. Mao Y et al. (2009) Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 regulates neuronal progenitor proliferation via modulation of GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling. Cell, 136:1017-31. (PubMed:19303846)
  20. Marques JM et al. (2013) CRMP2 tethers kainate receptor activity to cytoskeleton dynamics during neuronal maturation. J Neurosci, 33:18298-310. (PubMed:24227739)
  21. Maurer U et al. (2006) Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis by destabilization of MCL-1. Mol Cell, 21:749-60. (PubMed:16543145)
  22. Munton RP et al. (2007) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of protein phosphorylation in naive and stimulated mouse synaptosomal preparations. Mol Cell Proteomics, 6:283-93. (PubMed:17114649)
  23. Piao S et al. (2008) Direct inhibition of GSK3beta by the phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of LRP6 in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. PLoS One, 3:e4046. (PubMed:19107203)
  24. Pigino G et al. (2003) Alzheimer's presenilin 1 mutations impair kinesin-based axonal transport. J Neurosci, 23:4499-508. (PubMed:12805290)
  25. Popkie AP et al. (2010) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling via glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) regulates DNA methylation of imprinted loci. J Biol Chem, 285:41337-47. (PubMed:21047779)
  26. Purro SA et al. (2008) Wnt regulates axon behavior through changes in microtubule growth directionality: a new role for adenomatous polyposis coli. J Neurosci, 28:8644-54. (PubMed:18716223)
  27. Qu L et al. (2004) Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces p53 cytoplasmic localization and prevents p53-dependent apoptosis by a pathway involving glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. Genes Dev, 18:261-77. (PubMed:14744935)
  28. Rochat A et al. (2004) Insulin and wnt1 pathways cooperate to induce reserve cell activation in differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Mol Biol Cell, 15:4544-55. (PubMed:15282335)
  29. Sakanaka C et al. (1999) Functional domains of axin. Importance of the C terminus as an oligomerization domain. J Biol Chem, 274:14090-3. (PubMed:10318824)
  30. Sharma S et al. (2011) Dephosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor is regulated by an RNA-protein scaffold complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 108:11381-6. (PubMed:21709260)
  31. Song J et al. (2004) The costimulation-regulated duration of PKB activation controls T cell longevity. Nat Immunol, 5:150-8. (PubMed:14730361)
  32. Takenaka K et al. (2007) GSK3beta positively regulates Hedgehog signaling through Sufu in mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 353:501-8. (PubMed:17182001)
  33. Tang QQ et al. (2003) Mitotic clonal expansion: A synchronous process required for adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100:44-9. (PubMed:12502791)
  34. Topol L et al. (2009) Sox9 inhibits Wnt signaling by promoting beta-catenin phosphorylation in the nucleus. J Biol Chem, 284:3323-33. (PubMed:19047045)
  35. Wakatsuki S et al. (2011) ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B-dependent CRMP2 phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol, 13:1415-23. (PubMed:22057101)
  36. Walf-Vorderwulbecke V et al. (2012) Frat2 mediates the oncogenic activation of Rac by MLL fusions. Blood, 120:4819-28. (PubMed:23074275)
  37. Wang Y et al. (2006) Epm2a suppresses tumor growth in an immunocompromised host by inhibiting Wnt signaling. Cancer Cell, 10:179-90. (PubMed:16959610)
  38. Wu X et al. (2006) Cdc42 controls progenitor cell differentiation and beta-catenin turnover in skin. Genes Dev, 20:571-85. (PubMed:16510873)
  39. Wu X et al. (2011) Skin stem cells orchestrate directional migration by regulating microtubule-ACF7 connections through GSK3beta. Cell, 144:341-52. (PubMed:21295697)
  40. Yamamoto H et al. (2007) Wnt5a modulates glycogen synthase kinase 3 to induce phosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2. Genes Cells, 12:1215-23. (PubMed:17986005)
  41. Yeh TY et al. (2006) Mitotic phosphorylation of tankyrase, a PARP that promotes spindle assembly, by GSK3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 350:574-9. (PubMed:17026964)
  42. Zhao J et al. (2012) F-box protein FBXL19-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of the receptor for IL-33 limits pulmonary inflammation. Nat Immunol, 13:651-8. (PubMed:22660580)

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Gene Ontology Evidence Code Abbreviations:

  EXP Inferred from experiment
  IAS Inferred from ancestral sequence
  IBA Inferred from biological aspect of ancestor
  IBD Inferred from biological aspect of descendant
  IC Inferred by curator
  IDA Inferred from direct assay
  IEA Inferred from electronic annotation
  IGI Inferred from genetic interaction
  IKR Inferred from key residues
  IMP Inferred from mutant phenotype
  IMR Inferred from missing residues
  IPI Inferred from physical interaction
  IRD Inferred from rapid divergence
  ISS Inferred from sequence or structural similarity
  ISO Inferred from sequence orthology
  ISA Inferred from sequence alignment
  ISM Inferred from sequence model
  NAS Non-traceable author statement
  ND No biological data available
  RCA Reviewed computational analysis
  TAS Traceable author statement


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