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Gene Ontology Classifications
heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 2

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GO curators for mouse genes have assigned the following annotations to the gene product of Hand2. (This text reflects annotations as of Tuesday, May 26, 2015.)
Summary from NCBI RefSeq

[Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is one of two closely related family members, the HAND proteins, which are asymmetrically expressed in the developing ventricular chambers and play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis. Working in a complementary fashion, they function in the formation of the right ventricle and aortic arch arteries, implicating them as mediators of congenital heart disease. In addition, this transcription factor plays an important role in limb and branchial arch development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in mouse
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by experimental evidence in other organisms
Summary text based on GO annotations supported by structural data
Summary text for additional MGI annotations
  1. Barbosa AC et al. (2007) Hand transcription factors cooperatively regulate development of the distal midline mesenchyme. Dev Biol, 310:154-68. (PubMed:17764670)
  2. Barnes RM et al. (2011) Hand2 Loss-of-Function in Hand1-Expressing Cells Reveals Distinct Roles in Epicardial and Coronary Vessel Development. Circ Res, 108:940-9. (PubMed:21350214)
  3. Dai YS et al. (2002) The basic helix-loop-helix factor, HAND2, functions as a transcriptional activator by binding to E-boxes as a heterodimer. J Biol Chem, 277:12604-12. (PubMed:11812799)
  4. Firulli BA et al. (2000) The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors dHAND and eHAND exhibit dimerization characteristics that suggest complex regulation of function. J Biol Chem, 275:33567-73. (PubMed:10924525)
  5. Funato N et al. (2009) Hand2 controls osteoblast differentiation in the branchial arch by inhibiting DNA binding of Runx2. Development, 136:615-25. (PubMed:19144722)
  6. Holler KL et al. (2010) Targeted deletion of Hand2 in cardiac neural crest-derived cells influences cardiac gene expression and outflow tract development. Dev Biol, 341:291-304. (PubMed:20144608)
  7. Kojic S et al. (2010) A novel role for cardiac ankyrin repeat protein Ankrd1/CARP as a co-activator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Arch Biochem Biophys, 502:60-7. (PubMed:20599664)
  8. McFadden DG et al. (2000) A GATA-dependent right ventricular enhancer controls dHAND transcription in the developing heart Development, 127:5331-41. (PubMed:11076755)
  9. McFadden DG et al. (2002) Misexpression of dHAND induces ectopic digits in the developing limb bud in the absence of direct DNA binding. Development, 129:3077-88. (PubMed:12070084)
  10. McFadden DG et al. (2005) The Hand1 and Hand2 transcription factors regulate expansion of the embryonic cardiac ventricles in a gene dosage-dependent manner. Development, 132:189-201. (PubMed:15576406)
  11. Morikawa Y et al. (2005) The basic helix-loop-helix factor Hand 2 regulates autonomic nervous system development. Dev Dyn, 234:613-21. (PubMed:16145670)
  12. Morikawa Y et al. (2007) Hand2 determines the noradrenergic phenotype in the mouse sympathetic nervous system. Dev Biol, 307:114-26. (PubMed:17531968)
  13. Morikawa Y et al. (2008) Cardiac neural crest expression of Hand2 regulates outflow and second heart field development. Circ Res, 103:1422-9. (PubMed:19008477)
  14. Murakami M et al. (2004) Differential cooperation between dHAND and three different E-proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 323:168-174. (PubMed:15351717)
  15. Papin J et al. (2004) Bioinformatics and cellular signaling. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 15:78-81. (PubMed:15102471)
  16. Srivastava D et al. (1997) Regulation of cardiac mesodermal and neural crest development by the bHLH transcription factor, dHAND [see comments] [published erratum appears in Nat Genet 1997 Aug;16(4):410] Nat Genet, 16:154-60. (PubMed:9171826)
  17. Thattaliyath BD et al. (2002) The basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND2 directly regulates transcription of the atrial naturetic peptide gene. J Mol Cell Cardiol, 34:1335-44. (PubMed:12392994)
  18. Thomas T et al. (1998) The bHLH factors, dHAND and eHAND, specify pulmonary and systemic cardiac ventricles independent of left-right sidedness. Dev Biol, 196:228-36. (PubMed:9576835)
  19. Thomas T et al. (1998) A signaling cascade involving endothelin-1, dHAND and msx1 regulates development of neural-crest-derived branchial arch mesenchyme. Development, 125:3005-14. (PubMed:9671575)
  20. Xiong W et al. (2009) Hand2 is required in the epithelium for palatogenesis in mice. Dev Biol, 330:131-41. (PubMed:19341725)
  21. Yamagishi H et al. (2001) The Combinatorial Activities of Nkx2.5 and dHAND Are Essential for Cardiac Ventricle Formation. Dev Biol, 239:190-203. (PubMed:11784028)

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Gene Ontology Evidence Code Abbreviations:

  EXP Inferred from experiment
  IAS Inferred from ancestral sequence
  IBA Inferred from biological aspect of ancestor
  IBD Inferred from biological aspect of descendant
  IC Inferred by curator
  IDA Inferred from direct assay
  IEA Inferred from electronic annotation
  IGI Inferred from genetic interaction
  IKR Inferred from key residues
  IMP Inferred from mutant phenotype
  IMR Inferred from missing residues
  IPI Inferred from physical interaction
  IRD Inferred from rapid divergence
  ISS Inferred from sequence or structural similarity
  ISO Inferred from sequence orthology
  ISA Inferred from sequence alignment
  ISM Inferred from sequence model
  NAS Non-traceable author statement
  ND No biological data available
  RCA Reviewed computational analysis
  TAS Traceable author statement


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