Selecting Phenotypic Allele Categories

If you do not check any of the boxes (in the Categories section of the Phenotypes, Alleles, and Disease Models Query Form), the search includes every allele type in the list. You can limit your search by making selections in any or all of the three category sections. Category definitions for the three sections are as follows:

Generation Method | Allele Attributes | Project Collections

Generation Method Definitions for the origin of the allele
Chemically induced (ENU)The exposure of mice to the chemical mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) results in germline transmissible mutations.
Chemically induced (other)The exposure of mice to a chemical mutagen other than ENU, including common chemical agents such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), bleomycin, and chlorambucil, results in germline transmissible mutations.
Chemically and radiation induced The exposure of mice to a combination of chemicals and X-ray or other types of radiation results in germline transmissible mutations.
Endonuclease-mediatedMutations are generated in pluripotent or totipotent cells by an endonuclease joined to sequence-specific DNA binding domains. The mutation is introduced during homology-directed or non-homologous end-joining repair of the induced DNA break(s). Methods include TALENS, CRISPRs, zinc finger nucleases and similar technologies.
Gene trapped The integration of a reporter construct into a putative gene is selected by virtue of its expression. The trapped gene is usually mutated by the integration. Gene trapped alleles differ from targeted mutations in that the integration event is random.
QTLQuantitative Trait Locus. A polymorphic locus has alleles that differentially affect the expression of a continuously distributed phenotypic trait. Usually, a QTL is a marker described by statistical association to quantitative variation in the particular phenotypic trait thought to be controlled by the cumulative action of alleles at multiple loci.
Radiation induced Exposure of mice to X-rays or other types of radiation results in germline transmissible mutations.
SpontaneousNo laboratory manipulation took place to generate the mutations or mutant phenotypes. Phenotype annotations are to naturally occurring mutants displaying abnormal phenotypes.
TargetedTargeted mutations are generated by the process of homologous recombination in stem cell lines at a specific genomic location.
TransgenicRandom integration of foreign DNA into the genome results in a germline transmissible mutation.
Transposon inducedThe random insertion of a transposable element is induced by the expression of transposase resulting in a germline transmissible mutation. These can be generated by the Sleeping Beauty, PiggyBac and similar mutagenesis systems.

Allele Attributes Definitions for the allele subtypes of the Generation Methods
Conditional readyConditional ready alleles contain at least one region of DNA flanked by recombinase recognition sites (e.g. loxP, frt). Subsequent interaction with a recombinase (e.g. cre, FRT) will remove or invert the flanked region, resulting in a deletion or alteration in expression of the target gene or transgene.
Constitutively activeA constitutively active allele produces an enzyme or protein product whose activity level is constant over time and independent from normal regulatory controls.
Dominant negativeDominant negative alleles produce mutant gene products that disrupt the activity of the wild-type gene when co-expressed. These mutations result in an altered molecular function (usually inactivity) and a dominant or semi-dominant phenotype.
Humanized sequenceHumanized sequences are alleles or transgenes that have been engineered to make a non-human sequence closer to that of human.
HypomorphA hypomorphic mutation results in reduced gene expression and/or reduced gene product activity.
InducibleA mutation is inducible if its activation or expression occurs with addition or removal of an external stimulus.
Inserted expressed sequenceInserted expressed sequences are experimentally introduced and expressed in at least one cell type. This categorical set includes only those mutations that are not included in other sets of introduced sequences (i.e. Reporter, Transposase, Recombinase).
KnockdownA knockdown is a specific class of hypomorph in which the affected gene's DNA sequence is not directly modified (e.g. RNAi).
Modified isoform(s)Alleles that produce modified isoform(s) (e.g. different gene products encoded by the same gene sequence as a result of alternative splicing) are those in which at least one wild-type isoform is produced, while others are mutant or missing.
No functional changeNo functional change describes a mutation in which no discernible effect on the expression or function of the gene has been demonstrated. An example is the introduction of loxP sites to flank a critical exon, which usually has no effect on gene expression or function until cre recombinase is applied. This set also includes inserted expressed sequences, such as reporter alleles, when the endogenous gene product activity is not affected.
Null/knockoutA null or knockout mutation is amorphic, producing no gene product, or produces a gene product with complete loss-of-function.
RecombinaseA recombinase (e.g. cre, flp) is an experimentally introduced expressed gene whose product has the activity to remove or invert a region of DNA that is flanked with recombinase recognition sites sites (e.g. loxP, frt).
ReporterA reporter is an experimentally introduced expressed gene whose product is easily detected and not ordinarily present in the organism or cell type under study. Bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ), whose activity can be detected using a staining reaction, is a commonly used reporter gene; as is green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is detected by immunofluorescence.
RMCE-ReadyRecombinase Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE)-Ready mutations contain acceptor recombination sites for targeting expression constructs to a defined genomic region for targeted cassette exchange., thus avoiding possible positional effects of transgene expression.
TransactivatorAn experimentally introduced intermediate protein (e.g. tTA) used to stimulate or repress expression of another gene through the use of an external stimulus. (Note: Limiting your search to transactivators is not currently an option on the query form but it will be soon.)
TransposaseTransposases are enzymes that bind to the ends of a transposon and catalyze the transposition of a transposon from one part of the genome to another.
Transposon concatemerTransposon concatemers are multiple copies of transposon sequences inserted at a single site. Transposon concatamers serve as donor sites in transposase mutagenesis.

Project Collections Use this section to limit your search to alleles from specific large scale projects and repositories.
Australian PhenomeBankA repository of genetically modified mouse strains held in Australia either as live or cryopreserved stock.
B2B/CvDCThe National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Bench to Bassinet (B2B) Program of translational research in pediatric cardiovascular disease
Beutler MutagenixResource of phenotypes and mutations produced through random germline mutagenesis with ENU
DeltagenDeltagen targeted knock-outs
EUCOMMThe European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program contributes conditionally trapped and targeted genes in mouse C57BL/6N embryonic stem (ES) cells to the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC).
EUCOMMTOOLSEUCOMMTOOLS created new inducible Cre knock-in ES cell lines into genes with useful expression patterns. Mouse lines are generated from many of these cells and the Cre expression patterns are documented at day P14 and P56.
GENSATGene Expression Nervous System Atlas of the developing and adult central nervous system of the mouse reporter and recombinase lines
Harwell ENU MutagenesisStocks with random ENU-induced mutations
KOMP-CSDCSD: CHORI (Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute), the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, and the University of California at Davis. Knockout-first alleles created in C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells.
KOMP-RegeneronNull alleles from the VelociGene group at Regeneron, Inc.
LexiconTargeted gene knock-outs and gene trapped alleles
Mutagenesis for Dev. DefectsFacility for Mouse Mutagenesis for Developmental Defects at Baylor College of Medicine
Neuroscience Blueprint creC57BL6/J mouse strains for the tissue and cell-type-specific perturbation of gene function in the nervous system
NorCOMMThe North American Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis project develops and distributes a library of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines carrying single gene trapped or targeted mutations.
Pleiades Promoter ProjectHuman MiniPromoters that drive region- and cell-specific gene expression in the mouse brain
RIKEN GSC ENU ProjectENU induced mouse mutants
Sanger Inst. Gene Trap Res.The Sanger Institute Gene Trap Resource (SIGTR) characterized reporter-tagged, loss of function gene trapped mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines.
Sanger miRNA knockoutsmicroRNA reporter knockouts in ES cell lines created using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE)