List of Figures

1-1 Origins of the older inbred strains of mice.
3-1 The components of a record-keeping system.
3-2 The codes used in identification of animals.
3-3 The evolving number system.
3-4 Coded cage tags.
7-1 Oogonial metaphase of the mouse.
7-2 Spermatogonial metaphase of the mouse.
7-3 Idiogram prepared from an oogonial metaphase.
7-4 Idiogram prepared from an spermatogonial metaphase.
7-5 Section of a spermatogenic tubule of the mouse.
7-6 Primary spermatocytic interphase, leptotene, zygotene, and earliest pachytene.
7-7 Spermatogonial mitoses in adjacent cells in a Sudan Black squash.
7-8 Spermatogonial mitosis in a sectioned spermatogenic tubule.
7-9 Metaphase from the spleen of an adult female mouse.
7-10 Idiogram of the metaphase in Figure 7-9.
7-11 Late prophase chromosomes from the spleen of an adult female mouse.
7-12 Idiogram of the late prophase shown in Figure 7-11.
7-13 Allocycly of an autosomal interval inserted into an X chromosome.
7-14 Tentative chromosome identifications in a tumor cell prophase.
7-15 Karyotypes from cultured embryonic mouse cells.
7-16 Spermatogenic tubules from an adult male mouse.
7-17 Spermatogenic tubule showing early stages of meiosis.
7-18 Early primary spermatocytes of the mouse. Left to right: leptotene, zygotene, early pachytene, midpachytene.
7-19 Late pachytene nucleus of the male mouse.
7-20 Spread spermatocytic nucleus showing 19 chromomeric chromosomes and the sex vesicle (SV) containing the X and Y.
7-21 Diplotene nuclei (Dip) in a sectioned spermatogenic tubule.
7-22 Primary spermatocyte at diakinesis.
7-23 Early anaphases of primary spermatocytes.
7-24 Secondary spermatocytes in a sectioned spermatogenic tubule.
7-25 Secondary spermatocytic metaphases. Sudan Black squash (x1725).
7-26 Early meiotic stages in the female mouse.
7-27 Midmeiotic stages in the female mouse.
7-28 Late meiotic stages in the female mouse.
7-29 Prometaphases in secondary spermatocytes showing the major coiling and the presence of short arms in several dyads.
7-30 Complete diplotene chromosome complement of a male mouse, showing chiasmata.
7-31 Complete metaphase I chromosome complement of an older male mouse.
7-32 Comparison of chiasma frequency data as obtained by Crew and Koller (A), Cox (B), and Painter (C).
7-33 Complete metaphase I chromosome complement of a female mouse. Numerals indicate the total/terminal chiasmata.
7-34 Reciprocal translocation configuration at diplotene, showing the types of gametes produced by several possible types of separation at anaphase I.
7-35 Deficiency configuration at pachytene, showing loop formation in the normal homologue.
7-36 Three-chromosome progessive translocation configuration at pachytene.
7-37 Transposition type of translocation at pachytene.
7-38 Trisomic spermatogonial metaphase and its idiogram.
7-39 Partial trisomy in a spermatogonial metaphase.
8-1 Photographs of some mutant mice.
8-2 Photographs of some mutant mice.
8-3 Linkage map of the mouse.
8-4 Relation of closeness of linkage to usefulness of a linked marker in maintaining an inviable or infertile mutant.
10-1 Breeding techniques for detecting dominant and recessive autosomal and sex-linked mutations.
12-1 Photographs of mouse eggs.
12-2 Photographs of mouse eggs.
12-3 Blastocyst in uterine crypt 4 days after copulation.
12-4 Diagrams showing implantation.
12-5 Section of implanting blastocyst 4 days 5 hours after mating.
12-6 Longitudinal section of early egg cylinder stage at 4 days 15 hours after mating.
12-7 Longitudinal section of 5- or 6-day egg cylinder.
12-8 Longitudinal section at 5 days 12 hours after mating.
12-9 Diagram comparing the early stages of development in a primitive rodent, the thirteen-striped ground squirrel, and in the mouse.
12-10 Sagittal section of mouse embryo of 6 days 13 hours, showing early stage of mesoderm formation.
12-11 Diagram showing the orientation of an 8-day embryo in the uterus and of the planes in which sections are cut.
12-12 Sagittal section of embryo of 7 days 1 hour showing the amniotic folds and the head process.
12-13 Sagittal section of embryo of 7 days 6 hours showing completion of amnion formation.
12-14 Transverse sections of head process.
12-15 Transverse sections of head process.
12-16 Sagittal section of mouse embryo of 7 days 15 hours.
12-17 Partly diagrammatic sagittal section of embryo of 7 days 18 hours.
12-18 Section transverse to midtrunk region of 8-day, 4-somite embryo.
12-19 Sagittal sections through somites.
12-20 Frontal sections showing development of the yolk sac.
12-21 Frontal sections showing head development of extraembryonic membranes and formation of midgut.
12-22 Longitudinal section of uterus at site of implantation of 8 day 6 hours, 5-somite embryo.
12-23 Drawing of reconstruction of 8-day 1-hour, 7-somite embryo.
12-24 Sections transverse to neural groove of 8-day 1-hour, 7-somite embryo.
12-25 Transverse sections showing the turning of the embryo.
12-26 Photographs of mouse embryos.
12-27 Photographs of mouse embryos.
12-28 Slightly diagonal transverse section through median endocardail primordium, just cephalad to foregut.
12-29 Diagram of the foregut region viewed from the ventral surface, showing distribution of the endocardium.
12-30 Diagram of the circulatory system in an 8-day 10-hour, 10-somite embryo.
13-1 Drawing of the skull, dorsal aspect.
13-2 Drawing of the heart reflected to right to show principal arteries and veins.
13-3 Drawing of the main arteries branching from the aorta.
13-4 Diagram to show the locations of the principal lymph nodes, the spleen, and the thymus.
13-5 Spleen, cross section.
13-6 Thymus, section.
13-7 Harderian gland, section.
13-8 Section through the exorbital lacrimal and parotid glands.
13-9 Section through the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
13-10 Adrenal gland section showing cortex and medulla.
13-11 Drawing of the ventral aspect of the brain to show location of the pituitary gland.
13-12 Drawing of the dorsal aspect of the pituitary gland, brain removed.
13-13 Sagittal section through the region of the pituitary gland of a newborn mouse.
13-14 Pituitary gland, section through pars distalis, residual cleft, pars intermedia, and pars nervous.
13-15 Drawing of the dorsal aspect of the brain with pineal gland in place.
13-16 Pineal gland, section.
13-17 Section of skin of the head of a newborn mouse to show differences between vibrissa and pelage follicles.
13-18 Diagram of a vibrissa follicle.
13-19 Diagram of the maximum extent of the mammary system, ventral and lateral aspects.
13-20 Mammary gland showing rapidly growing end buds, whole mount.
13-21 Third mammary glands of virgin female mice.
13-22 Developing mammary gland on the 11th day of pregnancy.
13-23 Mammary gland near term showing secretory activity, section.
13-24 Mammary gland on the seventh day of lactation.
13-25 Mammary gland after cessation of lactation that had continued for 22 days.
13-26 Third mammary gland of (MA/My X C57BL)F1 male mouse 9 weeks old, whole mount.
13-27 Dorsal surface of the tongue in the region of the intermolar eminence, section.
13-28 Taste buds.
13-29 Soft palate, cross section.
13-30 Section through the sublingual, submandibular, and parotid salivary glands of a male mouse.
13-31 Camera lucida drawings to show sexual dimorphism of the intercalated tubules of the submandibular gland.
13-32 Drawing of the stomach, ventral aspect.
13-33 Esophagus, cross section.
13-34 Stomach, section through the ridge separating glandular and nonglandular portions.
13-35 Duodenum, longitudinal section near the pylorus.
13-36 A. Colon, cross-section. B. Rectum, cross-section showing a lymphatic nodule.
13-37 Section showing the opening of the bile duct into the duodenum.
13-38 Liver, section
13-39 A. Section of the gall bladder wall. B Section of the bile duct wall.
13-40 Section through the pancreas showing several lobules of aveoli, two islets of Langerhans, and a pancreatic duct emptying into the bile duct.
13-41 Lung, section.
13-42 Section through the kidney hilus region showing portions of cortex, pelvis, and papilla.
13-43 Ureter, cross section.
13-44 Urinary bladder, section.
13-45 Drawings of the male genital system.
13-46 Drawing of the testis, efferent ducts, epididymus, and vas deferens.
13-47 Section of the caput of the epididymus, showing separation into lobules.
13-48 Section of the first lobule of the caput to show the efferent duct entering the duct of the epididymis.
13-49 Vas deferens, cross-section.
13-50 Cross-section through the glans penis, preputial cavity, and prepuce.
13-51 Cephalic end of the male urethra.
13-52 Preputial gland, section.
13-53 Drawing of the female genital system.
13-54 Ovary, ovarian bursa, fat body, fimbrinated end of the oviduct within the periovarian space, and coils of the oviduct, section.
13-55 Section of the ovary to show clusters of primordial follicles under the germinal epithelium.
13-56 Section of the ovary through a corpus luteum.
13-57 Fimbriae of oviduct, section.
13-58 Isthmus region of the oviduct, cross-section.
13-59 Section through the intramural oviduct, colliculus tubarius, and uterus.
13-60 Uterine horn, cross-section.
13-61 Uterine corpus, cross-sections through two levels.
13-62 Section through the clitoris to show erectile tissue surrounding the urethra, the clitoral gland and duct, and the small os clitoris.
17-1 Heart blood from 12-day C57BL/6 fetus, showing proerythroblast (A), nucleated erythrocytes with panchychromatic nucleus (B), and dividing hemoglobinized cell (C) (Wright-Lepehne stain).
17-2 Heart blood from 14-day C57BL/6 fetus.
17-3 Erythroid precursor cells from the hematopoietic liver of a 14-day C57Bl/6 fetus.
17-4 Peripheral blood cells of newborn flexed mouse.
17-5 Peripheral blood cells of newborn jaundiced mouse.
18-1 Factors in blood coagulation.
20-1 Pituitary gland weights of some inbred strains and hybrid mice.
20-2 Adrenal gland weights in some inbred strains and hybrid mice.
20-3 Submandibular gland weights in some inbred strains and hybrid mice.
20-4 Body weights of treated and untreated dwarf females.
20-5 Plots of seminal vesicle weight (wet) against log dose of testosterone propionate in A/J, BALB/cJ and CAF1 hybrid mice.
20-6 Lipid concentration in adrenal glands of intact and castrated mice of some inbred strains and hybrids.
21-1 Coat colors of mice.
21-2 Coat colors of mice.
21-3 Unstained tangential section of transitional hair follicle showing black and yellow pigment in individual melanocytes (arrow).
21-4 Hair bulb of intact somites plus the neural tube taken from 10½-day albino embryo.
22-1 Effect of radiation dose on survival time.
22-2 A. The probability density function f(x) of the normal distribution. B. The cumulative distribution function F(x) of the normal distribution.
22-3 Example of dose-response curve.
23-1 A. Correlation of the mean strain weights and the mean slope of the regression of the response to insulin. B. Correlation of the ED50 and mean slope of the regression in the same strain of mice.
24-1 Diagram showing the expected portion of susceptible and resistant mice in an F2 generation when susceptibility and resistance are determined by two loci both showing codominance.
24-2 Diagram showing the cross-intercross method of producing congenic resistant lines.
24-3 Diagram showing how the F1 test can be used to determine whether two CR strains on the same inbred background differ from the background strain at the same or different histocompatibility loci.
24-4 The ninth linkage group and the H-2 complex.
26-1 Survival curves for bred female mice from 10 inbred strains in the Pedigreed Expansion Stocks, The Jackson Laboratory.
26-2 Survival curves for bred female mice from 10 inbred strains in the Pedigreed Expansion Stocks, The Jackson Laboratory.
26-3 Survival curves for virgin female mice from three inbred strains in the Pedigreed Expansion Stocks, The Jackson Laboratory.
26-4 Survival curves for male mice produced in six different F1 hybrid crosses in the Production Stocks, The Jackson Laboratory.
27-1 Mammary adenocarcinoma, Type A, with characteristic acinar structure.
27-2 Mammary adenocarcinoma, Type B, with varying epithelial patterns.
27-3 Mammary adenocarcinoma, Type C, with cysts of varying size and prominent stroma.
27-4 Mammary adenocarcinoma, with glandular tumor tissue showing prominent epidermoid differentiation.
27-5 Lymphatic leukemia involving lymph node.
27-6 Reticulum cell neoplasm, Type A, involving liver.
27-7 Reticulum cell neoplasm, Type B, with intermixture of large, pale reticulum cells and lymphocytes.
27-8 A reticulum cell neoplasm, Type B, in strain SJL/J, with intermixture of reticulum cell, lymphocytes, tumor giant cells, and prominent fibrosis.
27-9 Granulocytic leukemia involving liver, with immature cells in tissue and more differentiated cells in blood vessel.
27-10 Plasma cell neoplasm.
27-11 Primary lung tumor, with columns of cuboidal cells and papillary formations (x 250).
27-12 Hepatoma, with cords of well differentiated liver cells separated by sinusoids (x 250).
27-13 Tubular adenoma of ovary, with clefts and tubules derived from germinal epithelium (x 150).
27-14 Complex tubular adenoma of ovary, with proliferation of interstitial cells (x 150).
27-15 Granulosa cell tumor, showing one of many possible glandular patterns (x 150).
27-16 Early stage of tumorigenesis in CE ovary, with mushroom-like cap of stromal cells (x 96).
27-17 Sertoli cell differentiation in an ovarian tumor in strain CE (x 250).
27-18 Luteoma, composed of polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm (x 400).
27-19 Interstitial cell tumor of testis (x 400).
27-20 Teratoma of testis, showing nervous tissue, bone, bone marrow, muscle, and glandular epithelium (x 150).
27-21 Adrenal cortical carcinoma, with islands of polygonal cells and cords of cuboidal cells (x 150).
27-22 Adrenal medullary tumor. Normal medullary cells are included in upper left (x 225).
27-23 Pituitary tumor occurring in strain C57BL/6 (x 225).
27-24 Thyroid tumor induced by pituitary tumor which was induced by X-irradiation (x 225).
27-25 Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, invading dermis and subcutaneous tissue (x 180).
27-26 Preputial gland tumor. Well-differentiated transplant (x 150).
27-27 Melanoma (x 150).
27-28 Myoepithelioma of parotid gland, showing sheets and cords of fusiform cells surrounded by more rounded basal cells (x 150).
27-29 Pleomorphic tumor of parotid gland induced by polyoma virus. Note glandular and mesenchymal elements (x 150).
27-30 Fibrosarcoma, with interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped cells forming collagen (x 225).
27-31 Leiomyosarcoma of uterus, with interlacing bundles of spindle-shaped cells closely resembling smooth muscle cells (x 225).
27-32 Rhabdomyosarcoma with large straplike, multinucleated cells, appearing round in cross-section, and smaller spindle-shaped cells (x 225).
27-33 Osteogenic sarcoma with trabeculae of osteoid tissue (x 225).
27-34 Hemangioendothelioma, with vascular channels lined by neoplastic endothelial cells forming papillary structures (x 150).
27-35 Adenocarcinoma of renal cortex (x 225).
27-36 Harderian gland tumor, with papillary structure (x 80).
32-1 Logarithmic values of brain weight as a function of body weight from birth until 271 days of age.
32-2 Variation in the relationship between brain weight and body weight among adult males and females of 17 inbred strains.
32-3 Four typical patterns of the electrocorticogram in the mature mouse.
32-4 Diagrammatic cross-section of the mouse eye.
32-5 Drawing and floor plans of Yerkes' discrimination box.
32-6 Curves showing absolute thresholds in photopic and scotopic vision.
32-7 Absolute threshold curves as a function of the wavelength of the light.
32-8 Threshold changes with sound frequency as determined by galvanic skin response and eighth nerve recordings.
33-1 Water intake and body weight of mice under varying conditions of scheduled drinking.
33-2 A tube-dominance test apparatus.
33-3 Mean response latencies by trial on the water-escape test.
33-4 Schematic view of Essman and Jarvik passive avoidance conditioning apparatus.
33-5 Diagram of the Morgan maze.
33-6 The Keeler multiple choice box.
33-7 Learning curves for mice in the Keeler multiple choice box.
33-8 Water maze for studying discrimination learning.
33-9 Activity scores of C57BL and A mice under red and white illumination conditions.
33-10 Exploratory behavior test.
33-11 Degree of audiogenic seizure susceptibility — controlled by many genes and by the environment.
33-12 Mean alcohol preference scores for parental strains and hybrids.
33-13 Inheritance of exploratory behavior in F1 hybrid mice.