Mouse Genome Informatics
phenotype observed in females
phenotype observed in males
N normal phenotype
• treatment of transgenic NOD mice with cyclophosphamide (CYP) accelerated NOD diabetes; 20 days after injection of CYP 63% of transgenic mice are diabetic compared with 7% of treated controls

immune system
• transgenic NOD male mice display a significant acceleration of the onset of spontaneous diabetes (over 85% at 200 days of age) compared to NOD controls (30-40% of male NOD mice)

endocrine/exocrine glands
• cultured islets of transgenic NOD mice are more sensitive to a mix of cytokines (Il-beta, Tnfa and Ifng) than NOD control islets as revealed by Caspase-3 activity
• beta cell damage is significantly increased in transgenic mice after CYP injection compared to controls; pancreatic insulin content is only 22% of original level after 8 days compared to 76% in control NOD mice

Mouse Models of Human Disease
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent; IDDM 222100 J:108415