Mouse Genome Informatics
cx1
    Apoetm2(APOE*3)Mae/Apoetm2(APOE*3)Mae
Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/?

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
nervous system
• increased number of neuroreactive microglia in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive microglia in thalamic region
• plaque deposition in cortical parenchyma increased 20%
• reduced deposition in cerebral microvasculature
• microglia are tightly associated with parenchymal plaque amyloid
• increased number of neuroreactive astrocytes in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive astrocytes in thalamic region

hematopoietic system
• increased number of neuroreactive microglia in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive microglia in thalamic region

immune system
• decreased number of neuroreactive microglia in thalamic region
• increased number of neuroreactive microglia in cortex

homeostasis/metabolism
• plaque deposition in cortical parenchyma increased 20%
• reduced deposition in cerebral microvasculature
• microglia are tightly associated with parenchymal plaque amyloid


Mouse Genome Informatics
cx2
    Apoetm3(APOE*4)Mae/Apoetm3(APOE*4)Mae
Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/?

involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
nervous system
• increased number of neuroreactive microglia in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive microglia in thalamic region
• plaque deposition in cortical parenchyma increased 20%
• reduced deposition in cerebral microvasculature
• microglia are tightly associated with parenchymal plaque amyloid
• increased number of neuroreactive astrocytes in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive astrocytes in thalamic region

hematopoietic system
• increased number of neuroreactive microglia in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive microglia in thalamic region

immune system
• increased number of neuroreactive microglia in cortex
• decreased number of neuroreactive microglia in thalamic region

homeostasis/metabolism
• plaque deposition in cortical parenchyma increased 20%
• reduced deposition in cerebral microvasculature
• microglia are tightly associated with parenchymal plaque amyloid

Mouse Models of Human Disease
OMIM IDRef(s)
Alzheimer Disease; AD 104300 J:136318


Mouse Genome Informatics
cx3
    Nos2tm1Lau/Nos2tm1Lau
Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/?

involves: C57BL/6
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
nervous system
• deposits are observed by 52 weeks of age
• 65% loss of NPY interneurons in the hippocampus
• neuronal loss is observed in hippocampus, subiculum and CA3

homeostasis/metabolism
• deposits are observed by 52 weeks of age


Mouse Genome Informatics
tg4
    Tg(Thy1-APPSwDutIowa)BWevn/0
involves: C57BL/6
Key:
phenotype observed in females WTSI Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
phenotype observed in males EuPh Europhenome
N normal phenotype
nervous system
• activation of microglial and astrocytes is elevated in cortex
• microglial cells show significantly increased levels of complement proteins C1q, C3 and C4
• over the course of 1 year, progressive and robust accumulation of insoluble amyloid beta-40 and -42 peptides is observed in mouse brains; increase in peptides is first observed at 3 months and increases markedly by 12 months (J:89848)
• soluble and insoluble amyloid beta-40 peptide levels are 10-fold higher than amyloid beta-42 peptide levels (J:89848)
• amyloid beta deposits are observed in the regions of the subiculum, hippocampus, and cortex at ~3 months; by ~6 months deposits become more numerous and appear in the olfactory bulb and thalamic region as well, with deposits throughout most of the forebrain by 12 months (J:89848)
• parenchymal amyloid deposits mainly present as diffuse, plaque-like deposits, with occasional deposits having a more compact structure suggesting a fibrillar nature (J:89848)
• deposits are largely in parenchyma and in diffuse form in cortex (J:124911)
• levels of amyloid beta-40 and -42 peptides are 12- and 14-fold higher in forebrain microvessels than in whole forebrain homogenates at 12 months of age; at ~3 months, levels in vasculature of forebrains is higher than whole forebrain tissue (J:89848)
• vascular amyloid beta accumulation is prominent in the thalamus and subiculum, and increases with age such that 45-55% of vessels are affected at 12 months of age; at ~6 months of age, amyloid beta deposits in and around microvessels in the thalamus and subiculum are observed (J:89848)
• microvascular amyloid beta accumulations are mainly fibrillar (J:89848)
• some arterioles in these brain regions show strong vascular and perivascular amyloid beta depostion, while blood vessel-rich regions like the hippocampal fissure show large accumulations of perivascular amyloid beta (J:89848)
• evidence of microhemorrhage is observed in microvessels with amyloid beta deposits (J:89848)
• microvascular fibrillar amyloid beta accumulation is observed in thalamic and hippocampal regions (J:124911)
• astrocyte numbers and density are enhanced in thalamic and cortical regions where fibrillar amyloid beta deposits are prominent

immune system
• activation of microglial and astrocytes is elevated in cortex
• microglial cells show significantly increased levels of complement proteins C1q, C3 and C4

cardiovascular system
• reduced cerebral blood flow, CBF, response (21% increase) to whisker stimulation is observed relative to controls (38% increase) at 9 months
• with myocardin gene transfer, CBF response drops to 10% in transgenic mice, a decrease of 50%, while it increased to 27% with shSRF gene transfer compared to 19% in shGFP controls

hematopoietic system
• activation of microglial and astrocytes is elevated in cortex
• microglial cells show significantly increased levels of complement proteins C1q, C3 and C4

homeostasis/metabolism
• mutants show decreased clearance of the mutant form of amyloid beta peptides compared to wild-type amyloid beta
• over the course of 1 year, progressive and robust accumulation of insoluble amyloid beta-40 and -42 peptides is observed in mouse brains; increase in peptides is first observed at 3 months and increases markedly by 12 months (J:89848)
• soluble and insoluble amyloid beta-40 peptide levels are 10-fold higher than amyloid beta-42 peptide levels (J:89848)
• amyloid beta deposits are observed in the regions of the subiculum, hippocampus, and cortex at ~3 months; by ~6 months deposits become more numerous and appear in the olfactory bulb and thalamic region as well, with deposits throughout most of the forebrain by 12 months (J:89848)
• parenchymal amyloid deposits mainly present as diffuse, plaque-like deposits, with occasional deposits having a more compact structure suggesting a fibrillar nature (J:89848)
• deposits are largely in parenchyma and in diffuse form in cortex (J:124911)
• levels of amyloid beta-40 and -42 peptides are 12- and 14-fold higher in forebrain microvessels than in whole forebrain homogenates at 12 months of age; at ~3 months, levels in vasculature of forebrains is higher than whole forebrain tissue (J:89848)
• vascular amyloid beta accumulation is prominent in the thalamus and subiculum, and increases with age such that 45-55% of vessels are affected at 12 months of age; at ~6 months of age, amyloid beta deposits in and around microvessels in the thalamus and subiculum are observed (J:89848)
• microvascular amyloid beta accumulations are mainly fibrillar (J:89848)
• some arterioles in these brain regions show strong vascular and perivascular amyloid beta depostion, while blood vessel-rich regions like the hippocampal fissure show large accumulations of perivascular amyloid beta (J:89848)
• evidence of microhemorrhage is observed in microvessels with amyloid beta deposits (J:89848)
• microvascular fibrillar amyloid beta accumulation is observed in thalamic and hippocampal regions (J:124911)